Shabbos Parshas Bechukosai

May 28, 2022

I davened by Bnei Ruvain.  The Benjamins were making a Seudas Hodah for the recovery of their son (Refael) Mechail Benjamin, who last Rosh Hashanah suffered burns over 55% of his body.  Michail looks good.   Aryah Benjamin, the father, spoke for 45 minutes adn talked about the ordeal the family went through, the community support, the time the hospital doctors said,all is lost, and  the miracles.  Aryah said that Michael always does things right.  When he burnt himself over 55% of his body, it was the right 55%.  The doctor was Dr. Schwartz who decided to put in Michael’s neck a third PICC line.  .  A PICC line is a thin, soft, long catheter (tube) that is inserted into a vein in your child’s arm, leg or neck. The tip of the catheter is positioned in a large vein that carries blood into the heart. The PICC line is used for long-term intravenous (IV) antibiotics, nutrition or medications, and for blood draws.  Oxygen was not getting into Michael”s body and his organs started shutting down.  Dr. Schwartz decided to put in a second oxygenator through the third PICC line.  Dr. Schwartz said that in all of his 30 years of his burn ward practice he never put ina third PICC line or a second oxygenator.   An oxygenator is a medical device that is capable of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood of a human patient during surgical procedures that may necessitate the interruption or cessation of blood flow in the body, a critical organ or great blood vessel.  

Cheryl Steiner came in from Toronto to be with the family.

Torah:

I saw the beautiful Kotzker below.  The Kotzker is self explanatory.   The Kotzker speaks to the human condition.  The Yeshiva world explains this Medresh that Dovid would always end up in the Bais Medrash and not do the work he had to do.  The Kotzker asks, cannot be.  If King David wanted to go to look at the defenses of Yerushalim or look at the waterworks, that is where he went.

Notice in the answer, the Kotzker says that when Dovid went to do his physical labor בּעסקים הגשמיים- with a  חשבּון-, he had an increased desire to learn and delve into the Torah.  The Kotzker does not define   בּחשבּון and we are free to interpret.  Most of us would interpret with the understanding that Dovid was working on behalf of the nation of Israel and therefore was doing Hashem’s work.  You could say with a little twist that once we do work that helps ourselves, our people, and humanity, we connect to Hashem and to his Torah.

I also worked on the first Pasuk of the Parsha. Verse 26:3 says:

 אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֖י תֵּלֵ֑כוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתַ֣י תִּשְׁמְר֔וּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָֽם׃ 

If you follow My laws and faithfully observe My commandments,

Rashi says:

אם בחקתי תלכו. יָכוֹל זֶה קִיּוּם הַמִּצְווֹת, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֶת מִצְוֹתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִיתֶם אֹתָם הֲרֵי קִיּוּם הַמִּצְווֹת אָמוּר, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם אִם בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ? שֶׁתִּהְיוּ עֲמֵלִים בַּתּוֹרָה (ספרא):

ואת מצותי תשמרו. הֱווּ עֲמֵלִים בַּתּוֹרָה עַל מְנָת לִשְׁמֹר וּלְקַיֵּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר “וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם” (דברים ה’):

I never realized that both ideas in the Pasuk according to Rashi talk about studying Torah diligently.  I looked at the Mizrachi and Sefisei Chacomin who talk about this.

Mizrachi:

אם בחקותי תלכו יכול זה קיום מצות כשהוא אומר ועשיתם אותם הרי קיום מצות אמר הא מה אני מקיים אם בחקותי תלכו שיהו עמלים בתורה. בתורת כהנים פי’ אם בחקותי תלכו וכן ואת מצותי תשמרו א”א לפרש לא זה ולא זה בקיום המצות שהרי כתוב אחריהם ועשיתם אותם שמורה על קיום המצות א”כ עכ”ל דאם בחקותי תלכו ואת מצותי תשמרו תרויהו ביהו עמלים בתורה קמיירי אלא דחד מנייהו בסתם עמלין וחד מינייהו בעמלין על מנת לשמור ולקיים:

כמו שנאמר ולמדתם אותם ושמרתם לעשותם. דשמירה בלב משמע שישמרו בלבם בעת שהם עמלים בה לעשות כל האמור בה וזהו ששנו בתורת כהנים וכה”א זכור את יום השבת לקדשו יכול בלבך כשהוא אומר שמור הרי שמירת הלב אמורה הא מה אני מקיים זכור שתהא שונה בפיך:

Sefsai Chocomin:

הרי קיום מצות. ה”ג כשהוא אומר ועשיתם אותם הרי קיום מצות אמור וכו’ ואם כן פירוש ואם בחקותי תלכו בעמלים סתם ואת מצותי תשמרו בעמליים ע”מ לשמור ולקיים: 

שתהיו עמלים בתורה. מדכתיב תלכו ולא כתיב תלמדו אלא ללמד שתלכו אחר דרש חכמים: [נח”י] דייק מדכתיב תלכו דכיוצא בזה מצינו לשון הליכה בירמיה על עזבם את תורתי ולא הלכו בה. וכמו הוי כל צמא לכו למים שמורה על התעסקות בתורה:

ע”מ לשמור. רצונו בזה דהא אחרי כן כתיב ונתתי גשמיכם וגו’ והוי משמע שיתעסקו בתורה ע”מ שיקבלו שכר והלא אמרו רז”ל אל תהיו כעבדים המשמשין את הרב ע”מ לקבל פרס ל”פ ע”מ לקיים כמו שנ’ ולמדתם אותם ושמרתם לעשותם דמשמע שישמרו בלב בעת שעמלים בה לעשות כל האמור בה:

Additional Torah form the new Emes Vemunah:

Sunday, May 8, 2022

Sunday, May 8, 2022

Rabbi Revah’s Shiur

The Kotzker Rebbe on the 

Tzidkus of Chanoch

Chovos Halevavos and the Kotzker

Rabbi Revah is learning Chovos Halevavos in Shiur.  The portion we are learning today deals with the reasons why the Torah does not describe the reward for doing Mitzvos are in the next world.    The Chovos Halevavos says that certain great Tzadikiem who are already attached to the next world are shown their reward in the next world.  He brings down a Pasuk in Zechariah that says that Yehoshua Cohen Gadol was shown his reward in the next world because he understood what the next world is all about. The Chovos Halevavos writes:

אחד הטעמים הוא: מפּני שׁאין אנו משׂיגים איזה צורה ישׁ לנפשׁ כּשׁהיא בּלי גוף, ומכּל שׁאין בּכחנו להשׂיג איזה דברים גורמים לה תענוג וצער כּשׁהיא בּמצב זה, וה׳ פּרשׁ את הדברים הללו רק למי שׁמבין את הענין הזה, כמו שׁאמר ה׳ ליהושׁע הכּהן הגדול (זכריה ג ז): ונתתי לך מהלכים בּין העמדים האלה  (עג)          

עג. בּין העמדים האלה, בין השׂרפים ומלאכי השׁרת העומדים פּה. (רשׁי ומצודת דוד)

We see that the reward for great people, great Tzadikim in the next world, is to be an angel on a higher level than angels who were created by God. Angels created by God are called עומדים.  They are stationary, they cannot go up in levels of spirituality.  People are called מהלכים because humans can go up and up in levels of Holiness, by doing MItzvos, learning Torah and connecting to God.  Yehoshua Cohen Gadal will be better than an angel.  He will be an angel directory connected to God with the ability to continue to grow.

 When I heard this piece from the Chovovs Haelaovos,  I told Rabbi Revah that this is the source of the Kotzker on Chanoch. The Kotzker learned the Chovos Halevavos, refer to Page 4..  

The Chumash says in Bereshis 5:24 –  וַיִּתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ חֲנ֖וֹךְ אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְאֵינֶ֕נּוּ כִּֽי־לָקַ֥ח אֹת֖וֹ אֱלֹהִֽים׃.  

Rashi says:

ויתהלך חנוך. צַדִּיק הָיָה וְקַל בְּדַעְתּוֹ לָשׁוּב לְהַרְשִׁיעַ, לְפִיכָךְ מִהֵר הַקָּבָּ”ה וְסִלְּקוֹ וֶהֱמִיתוֹ קֹדֶם זְמַנּוֹ, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁשִּׁנָּה הַכָּתוּב בְּמִיתָתוֹ לִכְתֹּב וְאֵינֶנּוּ בָּעוֹלָם – לְמַלְּאוֹת שְׁנוֹתָיו ‏(בראשית רבה):

The Kotzker Rebbe asks on Rashi, how can you say that Chanoch was Kal Bidato, when Chanoch became the angel מט״ט?  Since Chanoch became the angel Mitat, it must be that Chanoch was a great Tzadick in this world.  How do we understand Rashi who seems to diminish Chanoch?   We see from the Chovos Halevavos and the Pasuk in Zechariah  that great Tzaddikim become high level angels.  This I believe is the source of Kotzker’s question.  If Chanoch became the high level Metat, Chanoch must have been a great Tzaddik.

In my Shabbos October 26, 2019 Blog Post on this Kotzker I explained the Kotzker Vort on Chanoch and I added an addendum about Rabbi Shlomo Carlbach.  

Much Earlier Blog Post:

Chanoch walked with God then he was no more, for God took him.  Rashi explains that Chanoch was a righteous man, but his mind was easily induced to turn from his righteous ways and to become wicked, God therefore took him away quickly and made him die before his full time.

It appears to be very difficult to anyone who reads this Rashi.   Is it possible to say about Chanoch who was the angel “Mitat”, the official angel of the inner sanctum of God, was heaven forbid easily influenced to do  evil.

The Kotzker continues that it seems that the explanation is just the opposite – it  was easy for Chanoch to speak to the heart of a sinner to leave his path of wickedness.  God was therefore afraid through Chanoch that free choice (in the world) would be gone;  therefore He hastened to remove Chanoch from this world before his time.  Meaning Chanoch was a super Lubavitcher Rebbe.  (Source Lekutai Magadim, Volume 1 (Page 11A).

Wow.  The Kotzker turns Rashi 180 degrees and says that Rashi is talking in praise of Chanoch.

A few years ago Rabbi Pilchik told  me the above Vort  and said the below follow-up in the name of an anonymous Rebi.  Rabbi Ephraim Twerski confirmed the Vort and told me that it was his  Zedi, the Dizikor Rebbe.

  • The followup by Rabbi Pilchik  – The night after saying the Vort the Dzikov Rebbe had a dream where Rashi appeared to the Dizikor Rebbe and thanked him for the explanation. Rashi told him that when Rashi saw Chanoch in the next world, they did not look at each other because Rashi disparaged Chanoch.  Now that you explained what I said regarding Chanoch that he was a complete Tzadik, we are friendly.   After Rabbi Pilchik and Rabbi Twerski  told me this Vort, I found the Vort in this Sefer and also in the name of the Kotzker’s son, Admor Dovid Morgenstern TZL (1809-1873), and was ecstatic.  The Kotzker lived from 1787-1859.

2019 addition:

 Perhaps both interpretations in Rashi can be true at the same time.  The more a Tzadik and people are out in the world interacting with people, the more he can be susceptible to be negatively influenced by the people and society he is trying to help, especially if they are speaking to the inner Neshmah of that person.  Perhaps you can say something similar to what  happened to Rabbi Shlomo Carlbach and this is why Reb Shlomo Carlebach’s music is greater than ever, because it came from a holy place.

This Maamer lends an important insight into the Kotzker.  He was always looking to find the positive and good in everyone and everything.  I have found that this mindset influences the writings, ideas, and thoughts of his descendants.

The following is from the Sefer Amud Haemes, page 248:  Rabinu is the Kotzker.

Pasuk from Zecharia Pasuk 7:3:

כֹּה־אָמַ֞ר יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת אִם־בִּדְרָכַ֤י תֵּלֵךְ֙ וְאִ֣ם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֔ר וְגַם־אַתָּה֙ תָּדִ֣ין אֶת־בֵּיתִ֔י וְגַ֖ם תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר אֶת־חֲצֵרָ֑י וְנָתַתִּ֤י לְךָ֙ מַהְלְכִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָעֹמְדִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃

 So said the God of the Hosts.  If you walk in My paths and keep My charge, and you in turn will rule over my house, and guard My courts; then after your death and you go up to the heavens, I will make you a  מהלך   among the   עומדין – the עומדין refers to the Seraphim and administering angels whose level is fixed.  However, Yehoshua Cohen Gadol will be a מהלך, able to go on higher and higher levels of holiness.    

The PIschai Lev, a Perush on the Chovos Halevavos, says that בֵּ֥ין הָעֹמְדִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ refer to the Se to the Seraphim and the administering angel.  Actual words of Rashi and Metzudas Dovid –

  The Metzudas Dovid says –

 ונתתי לך מהלכים. ר״ל ומלבד זאת לא יקופח שכרם בעולם הנשמות כי אתן  להם מהלכים וטיולים בין המלאכים  האלה העומדים פה כמ״ש למעלה ויאמר אל העומדים לפניו   :

העומדים. שרפים ומלאכי השרת שאין להם ישיבה:   Rashi      

Shabbos Parshas Kedoshim

Sons Praying with Fathers

Ben Shapiro

David Gross

May 6, 2022

Yesterday, May 5, 2022, I was davening at Chabad of East Lakeview, listening to leining and following along in the Parsha.  As the Parsha was being read, an idea I said a few months ago crystallized in my mind.

The second and third Pasukim of Kedoshim says

דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־כׇּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֥ אֲלֵהֶ֖ם קְדֹשִׁ֣ים תִּהְי֑וּ כִּ֣י קָד֔וֹשׁ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃ 

אִ֣ישׁ אִמּ֤וֹ וְאָבִיו֙ תִּירָ֔אוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֖י תִּשְׁמֹ֑רוּ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

There is סמיכות between Holiness, Godliness and fearing (and I will include honoring ones parents – the Ba’al Haturim does make the connection here) and Shabbos.  What is the connection?    

On October 13, 2020, Behind the Bima out of Boca Raton Synagogue had as their guest Ben Shapiro. Rabbis Goldberg, Moskowitz, and Broide interviewed him.   Minute 27:08 of the interview Ben Shapiro said the following, “I have gone to Shul with my dad since I was a kid.  My parents have also moved into the area.  My dad and I have sat next to each other since before my Bar Mitzvah.” When I heard this, I stopped figuratively and comprehended what Ben Shapiro just said.  He has davened with his father on Shabbos year after year.  During his father’s working career and during Ben’s years in building a brand, one thing was constant, his father got to see his son and now his grand kids every single Shabbos, and not just for a few minutes, an entire 2.5 hours.  This cost Ben Shapiro no money and no time out of his day.  He fulfilled the Mitzva of honoring ones parents.  

As my father told me that when he was in the Warsaw Ghetto with his parents and supporting them, one day his father turned to him and said with deep emotion “you have fulfilled the commandant of honoring one’s parents כמו שכתוב בתורה ”

The famous song from 1974,  Cats in the Cradle by Harry Chapin came to mind about a father who had no time for his son, while the son was growing up.  Years later when his father retired and the son was raising a family , the son had no time for his father.

Lyrics    – https://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/harrychapin/catsinthecradle.html

Song     – https://youtu.be/7OqwKfgLaeA

Ben Shapiro did the opposite without costing him time or money. He made sure to purchase a house near his father in LA and when Ben Shaprio moved to Boca Raton, his father also moved.   All it was is a decision that I will do what it takes to daven with my father every Shabbos that I am in town.  He may have not made a conscious decision but for him it may have been a natural decision.   Greatness.

Going back to my question above, that there is סמיכות between Holiness, Godliness;  and Shabbos and fearing *(and I will include honoring ones parents – the Ba’al Haturim does make the connection here) .  What is the connection?  

This has been fulfilled by what Ben Shapiro has done in life.  On Shabbos he gives honor and respect to his father, which produces holiness and Godliness.

This past March, I was in Boynton Beach visiting my kids. Of course I went to Daf Yomi in Boca Raton Synagogue by Rabbi Ben Sugerman. After Shiur I walked into the Shul to daven. I see my cousin David Gross from Teaneck, New Jersey visiting his kids. Davening next to him was his son-in-law, Dr. Michael. Wow. I saw the above Torah of sons praying with fathers in action on a weekday morning. While this is a son-in-law, the same specialness and greatness is manifested. I am so inspired by this scene and it is glued to my memory. I also noticed that Dr. Michael davens with Kavanah; conviction and concentration. He does not fly through Shmonah Esray.

Discovering Greatness

Shabbos March 5, 2022 Parshas Pekudei

Shabbos March 12, 2022 Parshas VaYikra

Shabbos March 19, 2022 Parshas Tzav

Shula Kotlarski

1,775 Shekolim that were not Initially Counted

Shmos Pekudei Verse 38:28

My Chance Meeting with Rabbi Chaim Stein in 1977

Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg

What a Rabbi in small town San Antonio, Texas Achieved

Pastor John Hagee

CUFI

Herb Eiseman

Helen Bloch’s Son’s Bar Mitzvah – Megill Shmuel Hameiri

Martin and Madelaine Brody-Seth’s Wedding-Remembering Aunt Flo

March 5, 2022 was a warm day with the temperatures into the 60’s.  I walked to Chabad of East Lakeview.  Rabbi Kotlarski was making a Kiddush for his new daughter, Shula.  The place was packed. Normally he gets about 50 people, this Shabbos he had over 125.  Great Kiddush.  Rabbi Kotlariski named the baby after his maternal grandmother.  His grandfather and grandmother were holy Jews.  His grandfather was a Mohel and always pursued by the Russian authorities.   

After Kiddush we had our class and I spoke out the Medresh which discusses Moshe’s accounting.  Moshe was 1,775 Sheklim short in his accounting for money taken in and how it was used.  Moshe was accused of benefiting from the donations to the Mishkan until God revealed that the missing money was used for the hooks in the Mishkan.  See the below Medrash.

It should be noted that there were mockers and scoffers who pursued this nonsense.  They could have said, this is only a small amount and we probably miscounted somewhere or forgot where it was spent.  Yet they persisted in their nonsense and wanted every monetary donation to be accounted for.   If Moshe was taking money, it would not make sense that Moshe would only take the 1,775 Silver Shekalim.  In today’s dollars the 1,775 Silver Shekolim would be worth $165,000.  One is not rich on this amount.  

Pekudei Verse 38:28

וְאֶת־הָאֶ֜לֶף וּשְׁבַ֤ע הַמֵּאוֹת֙ וַחֲמִשָּׁ֣ה וְשִׁבְעִ֔ים עָשָׂ֥ה וָוִ֖ים לָעַמּוּדִ֑ים וְצִפָּ֥ה רָאשֵׁיהֶ֖ם וְחִשַּׁ֥ק אֹתָֽם׃ 

And of the 1,775 shekels he made hooks for the posts, overlay for their tops, and bands around them.

Shemot Rabbah 51:6 on Verse 38:21:

מִשְׁכַּן הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר פֻּקַּד עַל פִּי משֶׁה, כָּל מַה שֶּׁהָיוּ עוֹשִׂין, עוֹשִׂין עַל פִּי משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֲשֶׁר פֻּקַּד עַל פִּי משֶׁה. וְכָל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה משֶׁה עוֹשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: עֲבֹדַת הַלְוִיִם בְּיַד אִיתָמָר בֶּן אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן, לֹא עָשָׂה אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אָמַר לָהֶם בּוֹאוּ וַאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה לִפְנֵיכֶם חֶשְׁבּוֹן. אָמַר לָהֶם משֶׁה: אֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כָּךְ וְכָךְ יָצָא עַל הַמִּשְׁכָּן, עַד שֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב וּמְחַשֵּׁב שָׁכַח בְּאֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁבְעִים שֶׁקֶל מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה וָוִים לָעַמּוּדִים, הִתְחִיל יוֹשֵׁב וּמַתְמִיהַּ, אָמַר עַכְשָׁו יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹצְאִין יְדֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר משֶׁה נְטָלָן. מֶה עָשָׂה הֵאִיר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עֵינָיו וְרָאָה אוֹתָם עֲשׂוּיִם וָוִים לָעַמּוּדִים, אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִתְפַּיְּסוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, מִי גָרַם לוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיָּשַׁב וּפִיְּסָן, הֱוֵי: אֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן. וְלָמָה עָשָׂה עִמָּהֶם חֶשְׁבּוֹן, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִתְבָּרַךְ שְׁמוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יב, ז): לֹא כֵן עַבְדִּי משֶׁה בְּכָל בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא, וְלָמָּה אָמַר לָהֶם משֶׁה בּוֹאוּ וְנַעֲסֹק בַּמִּשְׁכָּן וּנְחַשֵּׁב לִפְנֵיכֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁמַע משֶׁה לֵיצָנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מְדַבְּרִים מֵאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לג, ט): וְהָיָה כְּבֹא משֶׁה הָאֹהֱלָה יֵרֵד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן וְעָמַד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְדִבֶּר עִם משֶׁה, (שמות לג, ח): וְהִבִּיטוּ אַחֲרֵי משֶׁה, וּמַה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אַשְׁרֵי יוֹלַדְתּוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, וּמַה הִיא רוֹאָה בוֹ, כָּל יָמָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַבֵּר עִמּוֹ, כָּל יָמָיו הוּא מֻשְׁלָם לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, זֶהוּ: וְהִבִּיטוּ אַחֲרֵי משֶׁה. רַבִּי חָמָא אָמַר הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים חָמֵי קְדַל דִּבְרֵיהּ דְּעַמְרָם, וַחֲבֵרוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ אָדָם שֶׁשָּׁלַט עַל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן אֵין אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ שֶׁיְהֵא עָשִׁיר. כְּשֶׁשָּׁמַע משֶׁה כָּךְ אָמַר לָהֶם משֶׁה, חַיֵּיכֶם, נִגְמַר הַמִּשְׁכָּן אֶתֵּן לָכֶם חֶשְׁבּוֹן. אָמַר לָהֶם בּוֹאוּ וְנַעֲשֶׂה חֶשְׁבּוֹן, הֱוֵי: וְאֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן.

Why did Moshe forget about the 1,775 Shekalim which were used for the hooks in the Mishkan?  Hooks are very small, almost insignificant, and additionally in the Mishkan’s courtyard they were covered by curtains.   Moshe forgot them.   If someone builds a $500,000 home; the hooks, door handles, and cabinet pulls maybe cost $5,000.  They are inexpensive and when you consider the cost of the house you miss these items.  When you look around your house you miss these items.  You see the overall kitchen. not the door handles.  This is what Moshe forgot and needed Hashem’s intervention to find.  The Medresh also says that most people trusted Moshe, but there are always mockers and scoffers.  This is so true.  These mockers and scoffers cause great damage.

These hooks are called  וָוִים They are critical for a house.  They are connectors.   Hooks and similar items allow a house to be used.  You are able to open doors, drawers, hang towels, pictures, etc.      

The letter Vav serves a similar purpose.  It connects verses together.  Most of the Pesukim in the Torah start with Vav.  We darshan if the word is אֵ֣לֶּה or ואלה.  

We all have small seemingly random and sometimes insignificant events that are forgotten that occur over a period of time.  These events pieced together on their own timeline connect together to be the great influencer on our life, similar to the events in the story of Purim.  Events that occurred over a ten- year period that when pieced together show the miracle of Purim.  

My job and career and my identity are linked together by a chance meeting with Rabbi Chaim Stein.  This is my Vav Hachibur.  I graduated college in 1977.  I struck out on campus job interviews and had zero job prospects.  I did not feel successful and was worried about the future.  I kind of felt I was a failure. I could not afford to give up.  I put one foot in front of another and looked for a job.   My mother told me she would call someone for a favor and I was against it.  I had to find a job myself for my esteem.  

I opened the Yellow Pages and wrote down each accounting firm’s name on a 3 x 5 index card and went knocking on doors.  I recorded on each respective card what happened.  I must have knocked on over 100 doors.  Almost all of the firms were at downtown office buildings.  At that time there were numerous accounting firms in each building.   Very tough.  After one fruitless day, I was walking to  my car which I parked on the  west side of the loop, west of the river.  The area was not developed and it was easy to find free parking.  I met Rabbi Chaim Stein who was also looking for a job.  We spoke and he asked me, why don’t I take the Civil Service exam?  I did not know it existed.  On his advice I took the exam and that led me to a job with the FDIC.  After 9 years I took a job at Peterson Bank.  Peterson Bank ultimately became Fifth Third Bank and I had a very successful 40-year career in banking.

It was this chance meeting in the vastness of the western part of the loop that I met Rabbi Chaim Stein, which led to my career.   What are the chances we would meet at that very time on that very day?  Rabbi Chaim Stein was my angel.  It was Hashgacha Pratis.  It took twenty years for me to remember what Rabbi Chaim Stein did for me.  That day as I was walking to my car, my life was closing in on me.  That meeting unbeknownst to me, stretched out my life’s narrowing path, stretched it out into a wide boulevard.  The chance meeting was the Vav Hachibor to the rest of my life.  At the time it occurred it was a seemingly small event but God made it happen.  I called Rabbi Chaim Stein to again thank him and his wife told me that he passed away two years ago.

Pesach Chase, my dear brother, told me that my Bris in 1953 was held at Pesach Stein’s restaurant on Roosevelt Road.  Pesach Stein put up a Sukkah.  Quite unique at that time. 

I tried to call Chaim Stein today and found out that he passed away two years ago.  Boruch Dayan Emes.

I took the Civil Service exam.  I found a job right after I took the test in August 1977, and did not think I would need that test; however, I lost my job right after Rosh Hashanah 1977 because one of the two partners of the firm was having an existential crisis and wanted to experience life in the great outdoors.  The firm needed someone with experience and they did not have the luxury of training me.  A week after I was let go, I received notice of a job interview and was hired by the FDIC.

My Vav Hachibor with Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg:

Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg is a person who lived the dictum that we Jews have to be a light to the nations.  Someone who lived well away from a major Jewish community, in San Antonio, Texas quietly changed the world and did great things for the Jews.   Most Rabbis would stay in a small town for a few years and move on to larger and more prestigious positions.  The Musser is that every Jew no matter where he or she is can change the world.  

2012

Rabbi Lopatin speaks from the pulpit about the Christians United for Israel (CUFI) convention he recently attended.  Rabbi Lopatin expressed the excitement of being only one of fifty Jews with 5,000+-  Christians singing Am Yisroel Chai, the Shema, and Hatikvah.  I was excited. 

2013

Rabbi Shmuel Bowman of Efrat was a scholar in residence at the Boca Raton Synagogue.  He spoke about collecting money from Christian Evangelicals.  He also mentioned the signs at Christian Evangelical conventions. Genesis 12:4 – וַאֲבָֽרְכָה֙ מְבָ֣רְכֶ֔יךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ֖ אָאֹ֑ר וְנִבְרְכ֣וּ בְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הָאֲדָמָֽה;   Esther 4:14 – וּמִ֣י יוֹדֵ֔עַ אִם־לְעֵ֣ת כָּזֹ֔את הִגַּ֖עַתְּ לַמַּלְכֽוּת׃.  He added, and the Christian Evangelcials believe the Bible.   

2015 

Saw Herb Eisemen wearing his CUFI lapel pin.

2016

I shared the dais with Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg in Brooklyn, New York when we were both honored by the Yeshiva Toras Chaim in Denver.

February 12, 2022 

BRS has a Stand with Israel night with Pastor Mario Bramnick of the Latino Coalition for Israel.

February 2022

Listened to Behind the Bima with Rabbi Yitzchok Adlerstein.  Rabbi Adlerstein is the director of Interfaith Affairs for the Simon Wiesenthal Center. He holds the Sydney M. Irmas Adjunct Chair in Jewish Law and Ethics at Loyola Law School and teaches senior high school girls at Yeshiva University High Schools of Los Angeles.  Rabbi Adlerstein mentioned that when he was first offered the job he did not know what to do.  He was a Yeshivisha guy and went to Kollel.  He said “what did I know about Interfaith Dialogue?” He asked one of the Gadolim and the Gadol responded, it is a Pikuach Nefesh for the Jewish people.   Of course, take the job.  Klal Yisroel needs friends.  He then said that the hero of Jewish Christain relationship is Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg.  I was astounded.  I stood up and said Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg!  Why didn’t I know this? I sat on the same dais and his son lives in Chicago.  When he was honored by Denver they never mentioned this aspect of Rabbi Scheinberg’s greatness. Rabbi Adlerstein said that 40 or some years ago Rabbi Scheinberg became friends with Pastor John Hagee.  He told the Pastor, we can be friends but there are red lines that you cannot cross.  Their friendship grew over the years.  In David Brog’s book “Standing with Israel” he writes on Page 3, 

Thirty-five years after the Holocaust, the Israeli air force destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor at Osirak, outside of Baghdad.  The Israelis had determined that Iraq was usinght the reactor to develop a nuclear bomb, a weapon this implacable enemy might one day uese agaisnt them.  Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin justified the action to the world by declaring the he would not permit “another Holocast in the history of the Jewish people.”  Israel was universally condemned for the Osirak raid, including by its ally the United State.

In San Antonio, Texas, a pastor named John Hagee was dismayed by the loud outcry against Israel’s action.  He decided to counter the chorus of criticism with a public show of support.  With the help of a fellow pastor and two rabbis, Pastor Hagee organized a “Night to Honor Israel.”  The day after he held a press conference to announce the upcoming event, someone phoned Pastor Hagee’s church and said, “Tell that preacher he’ll be dead by Friday.”

When asked why he so staunchly supports Israel, Pastor John Hagee speaks of a “biblical mandate to bless the Jews” and a Christian debt of gratitude to the Jewish people.

February 2022 

I mention Rabbi Adlerstein’s statement to Herb Eiseman and a week later Herb brings me The Torch, the CUFI quarterly magazine.  CUFI honors Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg and they create the Rabbi Scheinberg Fellowship.  The magazine states, “Rabbi Aryen Scheinberg changed the history of the JEWISH-Christian landscape as we see it today?”

Link to the magazine articles about Rabbi Scheinberg – https://cufi.org/thetorch/2021-Fall/#page=1

I watched CUFI’s 2021 Night to Honor Israel at Cornerstone Church that was held on Sunday October 24th 2021.  Pastor John Hagee told a great story.  Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg was dying of cancer and called Pastor John Hagee for a meeting.  At their visit Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg tells Rabbi Hagee that I called to meet with you because at my funeral there will be 6 speakers; five by my five sons, and the sixth by you. You Christians wait six days and then you have the funeral. Us Jews bury the deceased immediately and then wait 6 days.  I want to be sure you have time to prepare my eulogy.

Pastor John Hagee and Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg were like brothers.  Rabbi Scheinberg’s favorite picture  was when they were together at the Kotel. arms around each other and praying.

Peggy and Sid and Herb attend the annual CUFI convention in Washington DC pre-Covid every year, showing their support for this vital organization.  This is Sid, Herb, and Rabbi Asher Lopatin.

Shabbos – March 12, 2022

After Shul I visited Rabbi Moshe Scheinberg, the Rov the West Rogers Park Agudah, and a son of Aryeh Scheinberg.  I showed him the CUFI magazine, The Torch, and their tribute to his father.  Moshe Scheinberg tells me that of course he has the magazine.  I spoke to his family about their father and grandfather.  As I am leaving the house Rabbi Moshe Scheinberg said that it is good for his kids to hear about his father from outsiders.

Rabbi Scheinberg’s oldest brother, Avrohom, took over the Shul in San Antonio and has continued the relationship with Pastor John Hagee and the Pastor’s son, Pastor Mike Hagee.

I found out from my brother-in-law that Rabbi Avrohom Scheinberg made a distant cousin Frum. The family lived in San Antonio. Their last name is Lifshitz.   The family made Aliyah.  The father got  a job as a Doctor in Hadassah hospital and their son is known as the Ilyu of Yerushalayim.  He has written 20 Seforim.

Shabbos – March 19, 2022  Parshas Tzav

I walked to Chabad of East Lakeview to attend Helen Block’s and Avikam Meiri’s son’s Bar Mitzvah, Megill Shmuel. Kiddush was huge and saw many friends.  I spoke to Rabbi Wolkenfeld and his wife, Sara.  I updated Sara about her friend, Amy Gross-Tarlow.  They went to Penn together.   Met some new friends.  The caterer was Shmuel Diamond who is the chef at Evita’s.  The chef is a regular by the Chabad of East Lakeview.   There were about 250 people. 

Helen Bloch spoke excellently.  She talked about her unique and gifted son, Megill Shmuel Hameiri. He is empathic, kind, and carries with him the Midos of a Jew.  Helen Bloch’s parents were Naftali Glenner’s vision coaches.   My mother always took Naftali there for his therapy and Helen remembers her well.  I took Naftali there once or twice.

We had our Dr. Leonard Kranzler Memorial Shiur at 2:30 PM.    Peggy and Sid Kaz said that they attend the CUFI conventions every year.   Peggy told me that Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg always gives the closing remarks and is always excellent.

Sunday – March 20, 2022.

Madelaine Brody, my cousin from LA, mentioned that Rabbi Yitzchok Adlerstein may perform the wedding service for her son, Seth, who is getting married during Labor Day weekend 2022.  I found out that Rabbi Adlerstein learned with her husband, Martin Brody, for many years.   If he attends, I am ready. I am very excited about the wedding and I will be with the family for the Auf Ruf.  I will be wearing a Tux.  The only other time I wore one was for Karen Schwartz’s wedding.

Martin Brody is my Rabbi, made me a talmud of Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, and overall, a good guy. We both loved running.   I used to go into LA for the City of Angels half-marathon that started at the LA Zoo in the Hollywood Hills.   The half marathon was on the first Sunday in December of each year until the owners of the hospital were caught on Medicaid fraud.   I would fly in on Thursday and stay at his mother-in -law, Flo.   One Friday afternoon we were running late and she was driving us to Martin and Madelaine’s house.  I was frightened of being in the car with her.  Another time I was at his house years ago for the Friday night meal.  Martin fancies himself as a wine connoisseur and I have no use for wine. I put ice and diet coke in my wine. Martin says to me, you heathen.  

I loved going.  There is nothing like LA, especially on a warm Friday evening during the winter when the angels are singing in the Shabbos.  We also got in a 14 flight of stairs walk.

I was able to stay at my mother-in-law’s sister, Aunt Florence. She was special.  She was a happy person

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Email to Rabbis Efreim Goldberg, Philup Moskowitz, and Josh Brody on March 16, 2022

Rabbis:

I hope I am not overstepping my bounds by sending this to you.  

Rabbi Yitchok Adlerstein mentioned that the hero of Jewish – Christian relations is Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg who recently passed away.  I did not know this.  In 2015 I shared a dais with Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg when we were both honored by Denver Yeshiva.  His kids went to the Denver Yeshiva.  They did not mention Rabbi Scheinberg’s great work on behalf of Jewish -Christian relations at the dinner.   Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg has a son in Chicago, who is Rabbi of the Agudah Shul in West Rogers Park.  I approached Rabbi Moshe Scheinberg and asked him if he knew about his father’s activities and he said of course.  

I mentioned all this to my friend Herb Eiseman who pre-Covid regularly attended CUFI conventions.   Herb lent me the CUFI Fall 2021 magazine, The Torch.    It was dedicated to the legacy of Rabbi Ayeh Scheinberg, with the following words. “Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg changed the history of the Jewish-Christian landscape as we see it today”.  They created the Rabbi Scheinberg Fellowship.  Wow.  My head exploded.  His story is untold.  It took a one-line statement from Rabbi Adlerstein to reveal this great story to me.  Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg is a person who lived the dictum that we Jews have to be a light to the nations.  Someone who lived in an out-of-the way Jewishly, San Antonio, Texas quietly changed the world and did great things for the Jews.   There is a speech about this concept of how every Jew no matter where can change the world.

This past Shabbos I went to Rabbi Moshe Scheinberg’s house to further discuss his father with his family.   Sometimes I do get carried away.  As I left Moshe Scheinberg he told me that it is important for outside people to praise his father so his kids hear about the greatness of his father from outsiders.   Rabbi Moshe Scheinberg told me that his older brother took over the Shul in San Antonio and has continued his father’s work with Pastor John Hagee and their world.  His brother was in Israel this past  Shabbos to support Pastor John Hagee, who was receiving an award from an organization.  

My humble suggestion is that on Behind the Bima you have a show about Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg with his son, Rabbi Avrohom Scheinberg, with perhaps Rabbi Adlerstein to discuss the legacy of his father.   I envision that perhaps even Pastor John Hagee would agree to be on that show.  

I do not want you to Jump the Shark by having such a program.  Let me know what I can do to facilitate.

I believe it was the influence of Pastor John Hagee who helped push President Trump to move the embassy to Jerusalem.

 PS:   I heard from Rabbi Shmuel Bowman about Jewish – Christian relationships about 8 years ago  when he was a scholar in residence at BRS.  Also Rabbi Asher Lopatin from his pulpit expressed his excitement right after he attended his first CUFI convention.

Mitchell A. Morgenstern

Have a happy Purim.

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I would like to come full circle.   As I mentioned before Moshe Rabbenu had to contend with mockers and scoffers.  They challenged Moshe on everything.  Despite all the efforts of these heroes, ignorant people say, Aah, Aah – the Christians only do it because they want all Jews to be in Israel for the “rapture”.  These mockers and scoffers feel that they can negate all the good work of Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg, Rabbi Adlerstein, and many others.  They reveal their ignorance and prejudice.  

Shabbos Parshas Beshalach – January 15. 2022

Kotzker – Yisro Verse 15:23 – וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ מָרָ֔תָה וְלֹ֣א יָֽכְל֗וּ לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת מַ֙יִם֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה כִּ֥י מָרִ֖ים הֵ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָרָֽא־שְׁמָ֖הּ מָרָֽה

Yisro Verse 17:6  –  הִנְנִ֣י עֹמֵד֩ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ שָּׁ֥ם ׀ עַֽל־הַצּוּר֮ בְּחֹרֵב֒ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַצּ֗וּר וְיָצְא֥וּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ מַ֖יִם וְשָׁתָ֣ה הָעָ֑ם וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֵּן֙ מֹשֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

Sefer HaYasher talks about Yisro, Iyov , and Bilaam giving advice to Pharoah regarding what to do with the Jews. 

Herzl’s T’shuvah

Chani Morgenstern is still here with us. Friday night’s meal was great.  Went to Mayer Chase at 7:30 PM.  Went to bed at 9:00 PM.  Got up at 5:30 AM to learn.  Shabbos morning I davened at Sidney.  Sidney, Lisa, and Naftali were in Miami Beach, FL.  After my meal, I walked to Rabbi Revah to tell him over my Torah.  Afterwards went over to my son in law, Mordy Siegal.  Davened Mincha and had Shalosh Suedos by his grandfather, Joseph Siegal.  I spoke out the Kotzker Vort.

The following is my Torah from this Shabbos.

Torah Vort #1:

One can write psychology books based on Kotzker Torah.  The Kotzker on Verse 15:23 has such a classical piece of Torah in a one liner.

Verse  15:23 says – וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ מָרָ֔תָה וְלֹ֣א יָֽכְל֗וּ לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת מַ֙יִם֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה כִּ֥י מָרִ֖ים הֵ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָרָֽא־שְׁמָ֖הּ מָרָֽה׃.

The Kotzker said,  הם בעצמם היו מרים ולכן לא יכלו לשתות.   Bitter people can turn sweet water into bitter water.  Bitter people ruin everything.  Lest you say that this Vort is Drush and not Pshat, we can use this concept to understand and contrast the hitting of the rock later on in this Parsha and the Mai Merivah in Bamidbar, where Moshe was punished for hitting the rock.   Why?

Later on in the Parsha 17:6 it says:

הִנְנִ֣י עֹמֵד֩ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ שָּׁ֥ם ׀ עַֽל־הַצּוּר֮ בְּחֹרֵב֒ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַצּ֗וּר וְיָצְא֥וּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ מַ֖יִם וְשָׁתָ֣ה הָעָ֑ם וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֵּן֙ מֹשֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

Moshe was told to hit the rock to provide water while in Bamidbar Moshe was to speak to the rock.  Moshe gets confused and  hits the rock.  Why was Moshe punished for hitting the rock?

The answer is the above Pasuk.  The Jews just left Israel where they had over 100 years of brutal slavery.  They led bitter lives.  They understood brutality and had to be led with toughness, with hitting the rock.  Forty years later there is a new generation of kids who grew up in the desert under the protection of God, with God and Torah, in peace with daily miracles and manna.  The new generation had a different outlook in life, they had to be led with softness, with words.  Moshe had to speak to the rock to produce water and not hit it.  They cannot be led with hitting.  When Moshe could not find the rock he should not have hit the rock, but should have  prayed to God.  Hitting the rock sent the wrong message and showed that Moshe could not be the leader of the new generation. This is why Moshe took his staff and why God hid the rock.  To show Moshe why Moshe could not be the leader taking he Jews into Israel.

Torah Vort #2:

Sefer HaYasher talks about Yisro, Iyov , and Bilaam giving advice to Pharoah regarding what to do with the Jews.  The Sefer Hayashar mentios Iyov asking to give advice twice.  

115 years of the Jews being in Egypt – pages 248 – 251 in the Sefer HaYasher

The Egyptions are afraid of the Jews and they trick the Jews into slavery,  Shmos verses 1:10 – 1:14

125 years of the Jews being in Egypt – pages 252 – 253  in the Sefer HaYasher   .

The Jewish people keep growing and the Egypts are more fearful.  Pharaoh asks his wise men what to do.  Iyov steps up and says kill all the Jewish babies.  Pharoah instructs the midwives to kill the Jewish babies.  Verses Shmos 1:15 – 1:22.

130 years of the Jews being in Egypt – Pages 254-257 in the Sfer Hayasher.

Pharaoh has a dream.  Yisro, Iyov, and Bilaam give him advice.  Yisro tells Pharaoh to leave the Jews alone.  Iyov says do whatever you decide, ויאמר המלך לאיוב העוצי, מה תאמר אתה איוב ומה תהיה עצתך בעברים. ויאמר איוב אל המלך, הלא כל יושבי הארץ בידך כטוב בעיני המלך יעשה.  Iyov is silent in the face of brutality.   

Bilaam advises throw all the Jewish babies in the Nile.

In the year 125 Iyov says kill the Jewish babies.  Pharaoh tries to implement Iyov’s advice, however due to Shifra and Puah it does not happen.  Five years later Iyov does not want to get involved so he basically says nothing.

Was Iyov a Rasha or a decent person?  He seems to be an evil person as he first suggested killing all the babies.  He obviously was very accomplished as he was one of the three advisors of Pharaoh.

Perhaps Iyov saw that his attempt of solving the “Jewish” problem did not happen.  Iyov reflected on this and five years later decides not to get involved.  Perhaps God did not let his evil advice happen because Iyov was a decent person who made a terrible decision.  Therefore God did not want evil to be attributed to Iyov.  Being silent was a step in the right direction, but was still wrong. 

As the words attributed to Edmund Burke states,  “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men should do nothing.”

    Edmund Burke 12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, economist, and 

    philosopher. Born in Dublin, Burke served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the 

    House of Commons of Great Britain with the Whig Party after moving to London in 1750.

    Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious 

    institutions for the moral stability and good of the state.

There is a Sefer in Tanach on Iyov’s life, written about his tragedy and triumph.  Iyov lost his ten children and wealth all on a single day.  The Sefer Tanach opens up with the following line, 

אִ֛ישׁ הָיָ֥ה בְאֶֽרֶץ־ע֖וּץ אִיּ֣וֹב שְׁמ֑וֹ וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֗וּא תָּ֧ם וְיָשָׁ֛ר וִירֵ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְסָ֥ר מֵרָֽע׃

 There was a man in the land of Uz named Job. That man was blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil.

How do we reconcile the first time the Sefer Hayasher mentions אִיּ֣וֹב with this opening Pasuk in Iyov.  It remains an open question.

The Jews leaving Egypt and crossing the reed sea takes place eighty years after אִיּ֣וֹב refuses to defend Israel.   He does not attempt to stop the evil plans of Pharaoh.

The Medresh in this week’s Sedra mentions Iyov.  We have not heard from אִיּ֣וֹב  for eighty years. Why does he now appear on the scene?

The Midrash Rabbah 21:7 says:

דָּבָר אַחֵר, מַה תִּצְעַק אֵלָי, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב לו, יט): הֲיַעֲרֹ֣ךְ שׁ֭וּעֲךָ לֹ֣א בְצָ֑ר וְ֝כֹ֗ל מַאֲמַצֵּי־כֹֽחַ

Will your limitless wealth avail you, not in adversity! Nor would all the power of your strength

, מַהוּ כֵן אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן פְּדָת הַמָּשָׁל אוֹמֵר כַּבֵּד אֶת רוֹפְאֲךָ עַד שֶׁלֹא תִּצְטָרֵךְ לוֹ. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אוֹמֵר עֲרֹךְ שׁוּעַ (Daven) כְּלַפֵּי בּוֹרְאֲךָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ לְךָ צָרִים מִלְּמַעְלָן. 

אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, עָמַד סמא”ל הַמַּלְאָךְ לְקַטְרֵג אוֹתָן, וְרַבִּי חָמָא בַּר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא פֵּרְשָׁהּ מִשּׁוּם אָבִיו, מָשָׁל לְרוֹעֶה שֶׁהָיָה מַעֲבִיר צֹאנוֹ בַּנָּהָר, בָּא זְאֵב לְהִתְגָּרוֹת בַּצֹּאן, רוֹעֶה שֶׁהָיָה בָּקִי מֶה עָשָׂה, נָטַל תַּיִשׁ גָּדוֹל וּמְסָרוֹ לוֹ, אָמַר יְהֵא מִתְגַּשֵׁשׁ בָּזֶה עַד שֶׁנַּעֲבֹר אֶת הַנָּהָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֲנִי מְבִיאוֹ. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם עָמַד סמא”ל הַמַּלְאָךְ לְקַטְרֵג אוֹתָן, אָמַר לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם עַד עַכְשָׁו הָיוּ אֵלּוּ עוֹבְדִים עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְאַתָּה קוֹרֵעַ לָהֶם אֶת הַיָּם. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מָסַר לוֹ אִיּוֹב שֶׁהָיָה מִיּוֹעֲצֵי פַרְעֹה, דִּכְתִיב בּוֹ (איוב א, א): אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר,

 אָמַר לוֹ הִנּוֹ בְיָדֶךָ. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁהוּא מִתְעַסֵּק עִם אִיּוֹב, יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹלִים לַיָּם וְיוֹרְדִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אַצִּיל אֶת אִיּוֹב, וְהוּא שֶׁאָמַר אִיוֹב (איוב טז, יב): שָׁלֵו הָיִיתִי וַיְפַרְפְּרֵנִי,  וַיְקִימֵנִי לוֹ לְמַטָּרָה.  אָמַר אִיּוֹב שָׁלֵו הָיִיתִי בָּעוֹלָם וַיְפַרְפְּרֵנִי וְאָחַז בְּעָרְפִּי וַיְפַצְפְּצֵנִי,  כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתִי לְעַמּוֹ לְמַטָּרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב טז, יב):  וּכְתִיב (איוב טז, יא): “יַסְגִּירֵנִי אֵל אֶל עֲוִיל”,  סָרַנִי בְּיַד הַשָֹּׂטָן וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹא יֵצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל רְשָׁעִים בַּדִּין, לְכָךְ הִרְטָה אוֹתִי בְּיָדוֹ, הֱוֵי  (איוב טז, יא): “וְעַל יְדֵי רְשָׁעִים יִרְטֵנִי “, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה, משֶׁה הֲרֵי מָסַרְתִּי אִיּוֹב לַשָֹּׂטָן מַה בְּיָדְךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִסָּעוּ.                                                                                 

Iyov 16:11 

יַסְגִּירֵ֣נִי אֵ֭ל אֶ֣ל עֲוִ֑יל וְעַל־יְדֵ֖י רְשָׁעִ֣ים יִרְטֵֽנִי׃

God hands me over to an evil man, thrusts me into the clutches of the wicked.

Iyov 16:12

שָׁ֘לֵ֤ו הָיִ֨יתִי ׀ וַֽיְפַרְפְּרֵ֗נִי וְאָחַ֣ז בְּ֭עׇרְפִּי וַֽיְפַצְפְּצֵ֑נִי וַיְקִימֵ֥נִי ל֝֗וֹ לְמַטָּרָֽה׃

 I had been untroubled, and He broke me in pieces; He took me by the neck and shattered me; He set me up as His target.

Upon reading the Medresh it seems that God gave Iyov to Samael for Sameal to batter and hurt Iyov, thereby distracting Samael from pursuing his court case.  Samael contended that God should kill all the Jews by saying, both the Egyptians and the Jews worshiped idols, why are you saving the Jews?

I want to say that the Medresh means that Iyov will fight with Sameal in court.   God was going to save the Jews.  Of course the Jews worshipped idols but that is beucase the Jews were slaves.  The Tshuva process of the Jewish nation started with the Korban Pesach,  Miscu U’Kichu, as Reb Yossi Hagelili said withdraw from idol worship and cling onto Mitzvos.  God will save the Jewish people and not listen to Samael.  God is giving Iyov a chance to redeem himself.   Iyov is being given the chance to defend the Jews, to tell Samael you are wrong, the Jews have great potential.  They are from the Avos, they will be receiving the Torah, and will be the moral compass of the world.  Iyov will slap Samael across his cheek and say, you paskunyak, stop with your nonsense.  

God gives people the chance to do Tshuva.  Herzl did Tshuva in January 1904 when he refused to kiss the pope’s hand. Herzl was granted an audience  with the pope after waiting years for a chance to ask the pope to help the Jewish people.   Herzl was told protocol is to kiss the pope’s hand.  Herzl refused to do so and saw it irritated the pope.  Herzl was desperate to find a place for the Jews to escape the horrible Galus, yet he would not compromise on Jewish values.  The pope was never going to grant Herzl’s wish for help.  Herzl transformed and became a proud Jew.  See https://kotzk.com/2020/07/13/shabbos-parshas-pinchos-july-11-2020-19-tammuz-5780/

Sefer Hayasher: 

 ויאמר המלך לאיוב העוצי, מה תאמר אתה איוב ומה תהיה עצתך בעברים. ויאמר איוב אל המלך, הלא כל יושבי הארץ בידך כטוב בעיני המלך יעשה

ועתה אדוננו המלך הבו לכם עצה על הדבר הזה ואבדתם את תקות בני ישראל ואת תוחלתם, טרם תצמח הרעה הזאת על כל מצרים. ויאמר המלך אל בלעם, ומה לנו לעשות לישראל הלא כזה וכזה יעצנו עליהם בתחילה ולא יכולנו עליהם. ועתה הבה לנו עצה גם אתה עליהם, במה נוכל אליהם. ויען בלעם את המלך לאמור, שלח נא וקרא אל שני יועציך ונראה מה עצתם על הדבר הזה ואחר ידבר עבדך. וישלח המלך ויקרא את שני יועציו את רעואל המדיני ואת איוב העוצי, ויבואו וישבו לפני המלך. ויאמר אליהם המלך, הנה כולכם שמעתם את החלום אשר חלמתי ופתרונו. ועתה עוצו נא עצה ודעו וראו מה לעשות לבני ישראל ובמה נוכל עליהם, טרם אשר תצמח רעתם עלינו. 

Yisro

ויען רעואל המדיני את המלך ויאמר, יחי המלך יחי המלך לעולם. אם על המלך טוב, יחדל לו מעל העברים ויעזוב אותם ואל ישלח ידו בהם. כי אלוקיהם בחר בם מימי קדם, ויקחם לחבל נחלתו מכל גויי הארץ ומכל מלכי האדמה. ומי אשר שלח ידו בהם וניקה, ולא עשה בו אלוקיהם נקם. הלא ידעת כי ברדת אברהם אביהם מצרימה, וירא פרעה מלך מצרים הקדמוני את שרה אישתו ויקחה לו לאישה. כי אמר אברהם אחותי היא, כי ירא פן יהרגוהו אנשי מצרים על אישתו. ויהי בקחת מלך מצרים את שרה, וינגעהו אלוקיהם נגעים גדולים ואת ביתו עד אשר השיב לאברהם את שרה אישתו, אז נרפאו. וגם לאבימלך הגררי מלך פלישתים הוכיח אלוקימו בעבור שרה אשת אברהם, בעצור להם כל רחם למאדם ועד בהמה. יבוא אלוקימו אל אבימלך בחלום הלילה ויפחידהו, למען ישיב לאברהם את שרה אשר לקח. ואחרי כן התווכחו כל אנשי גררה בעבור שרה, ויתפלל אברהם עליהם אל אלוקיו ויעתר לו וירפאם. וירא אבימלך את כל הרעה הבאה עליו ועל עמו וישב לאברהם את שרה אישתו, ויתן לו עמה מנות ומתנות רבות.

וגם אל יצחק כה עשה בגרשם אותו מגרר, ויפליא אלוקיו עמו פליאות ויתיבשו כל מוצאי מימי גררה ועצי תנובתם לא צמחו עד אשר הלכו אליו אבימלך מגרר ואחוזת מרעהו ופיכול שר צבאו ויקדו וישתחוו לו ארצה. ויבקשו ממנו תחינה להתפלל עליהם אל ה׳, ויעתר לו ה׳ וירפא אותם. וגם יעקב איש תם הוצל בתומו מיד עשו אחיו, ומיד לבן הארמי אחי אמו המבקשים את נפשו. וגם מיד כל מלכי כנען אשר באו כולם יחד עליו ועל בניו להשמידם, ויצל אותם ה׳ מידם וישובו עליהם וימיתום כי מי אשר שלח ידו בהם וניקה. הלא פרעה הקדמוני אבי אביך גידל את יוסף בן יעקב על כל שרי ארץ מצרים בראותו את חכמתו, כי בחכמתו מלט את כל יושבי הארץ מן הרעב. ואחרי כן ציוה להוריד את יעקב ובניו מצרימה, למען תמלט ארץ מצרים וארץ גושן בחסדם מן הרעב. ועתה אם אוב בעיניך חדל לך מהשחית את בני ישראל, ואם אין בלבך להושיבם מצרימה שלח אותם מזה וילכו ארצה כנען ארץ מגורי אבותיהם. ויהי כשמוע פרעה את דברי יתרו ויחר אפו מאוד עליו, ויקם מאת פני המלך בבושת ויצא ממצרים ביום ההוא וילך אל ארצו מדינה ומטה יוסף לקח בידו.

Iyov:

 ויאמר המלך לאיוב העוצי, מה תאמר אתה איוב ומה תהיה עצתך בעברים. ויאמר איוב אל המלך, הלא כל יושבי הארץ בידך כטוב בעיני המלך יעשה..

Bilaam:

ויאמר המלך אל בלעם, מה תאמר אתה בלעם דבר את דבריך ונשמענו

 ויאמר בלעם למלך, כל אשר יעץ המלך על העברים ימלטו ממנה ולא יוכל המלך עליהם בכל עצה. כי אם בלהבת אש תאמר להמעיטם, לא תוכל עליהם בה כי הלא אלוקיהם מילט את אברהם אביהם מאור כשדים. אם בחרב תאמר להשמידם, הלא יצחק אביהם נמלט ממנה וינתן איל תחתיו. ואם בעבודת פרך וקושי תאמר להמעיט אותם, לא תוכל על זה הלא יעקב אביהם עבד את לבן בכל עבודה קשה והצליח.

ועתה אדוני המלך שמע נא את דברי וזאת העצה היעוצה עליהם אשר תוכל עליהם בה, וממנה לא תסור. אם על המלך טוב יצוה להשליך ילדיהן אשר יולידו מהיום ההוא והלאה אל המימה, כי בזה תוכל למחות את שמם כי לא נוצל אחד מהם ומאבותם בדבר הזה. וישמע המלך את דברי בלעם, ויטב בעיני המלך והשרים ויעש המלך כדבר בלעם. ויצו המלך ויעבירו קול ותנתן דת בכל ארץ מצרים לאמור, כל זכר היולד לעברים מהיום הזה והלאה ישלך אל המימה. ויקרא פרעה אל כל עבדיו לאמור, צאו נא ובקשו בכל ארץ גושן אשר שם בני ישראל וראו כל בן הילוד לעברים היאורה תשליכוהו וכל הבת תחיון. ויהי כשמוע בני ישראל את הדבר אשר ציוה פרעה להשליך את זכוריהם היאורה, ויפרדו מקצת העם מנשיהם, ומקצתם דבקו בהנה. ויהי מהיום ההוא והלאה בעת לדת נשי ישראל אשר עודם דברו בהנה, ותצאן השדה ללכת שמה ותלדן בשדה ותעזובנה ילדיהן על פני השדה וישובו אל בתיהם. וה׳ אשר נשבע לאברהם להרבותם, שלח להם מלאך ממשרתיו אשר בשמים לרחצו במים ולסוכו ולמושחו ולהחתלו, ולשום בידו שתי חלוקי אבנים מן האחת ינק חלב ומן השנית יונק דבש. וגם את שערות ראשו מגדל עד ארכובותיו, למען יתכסה בהם לענגו ולדבקו בחמלו עליו. ויהי בחמול האלוקים עליהם ובבקשו להרבותם על פני האדמה ויצו לתבל ארצו ותקבלם להישמר בתוכם עד עת גדולם. ואחרי כן פתחה הארץ פיה ותקיא אותם, ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ וכתמסי יער וישובו איש אל משפחתו ואיש אל אבותיו וידבקו בהם. ויהיו ילדי בני ישראל בתבל הארץ כעשב השדה, בחמלת ה׳ עליהם. ויראו כל מצרים את הדבר הזה ויצאו כל מצרים איש אל שדהו איש בצמד בקרו ובמחרשתו, ויחרישו על גביו כמשדד תבל בעת הזרע. ויהי כחרשם ולא יכלו להזיק את ילדי בני יעקב, וירב העם ויעצמו מאוד

Shabbos Parshas Bo – January 7 and 8, 2022

January 13, 2022 – Understanding the Malbim

Malbim

Meir Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Wisser (March 7, 1809 – September 18, 1879), better known as the Malbim (Hebrew: מלבי”ם), was a rabbi, master of Hebrew grammar, and Bible commentator. The name Malbim was derived from the Hebrew initials of his name. He used this acronym as his surname in all his published works, and became known by it in common usage.  When we spent a Shabbos in Pinsk in 2007, the Rabbi, Moshe Dema, took us on a walk on Shabbos afternoon.  He showed us about where the Malbim was buried. In Belarus there was a law that if a cemetery had no burial for 50 years, the cemetery was destroyed and the land reused.  The government plowed up the cemetery, I guess they moved the graves, and built houses on part of the cemetery land.     Wikipedia said the Malbim died in 1879 in Kiev.  I would go with Rabbi Dema.

Thursday – January 13, 2022 – :

On Thursday morning after Shabbos I was still reviewing my Torah from the past Shabbos.  I came across a beautiful Malbim.  The night before I read through the Malbim and I did not fully understand what he said.  This morning at 5:30 AM I learned the Malbim again and it came into clear focus.  I was very joyous.   My grandfather Rabbi Sholem Sklar praised his father (died in 1923) that his father knew all the Malbims.  I have the Malbim of my wife’s grandfather, Rabbi Leibush Noble.  It  seemed that the Malbim was in every Jewish home and when the Eastern European Jews came to America, they brought their Malbims with them.

I was very B’Simcha. This is the first Malbim that I worked on and understood.  There was one before but this one I put it within a larger Torah thought. I connected to the Malbim and to my grandfathers.  I had the same Simcha when I learned and understood my first Netziv.  I spoke this Torah to the Kollel at Skokie Yeshiva in front of Rabbi Revah.

Divrei Torah from this past Shabbos.

Chapter 12, Verse 21:

וַיִּקְרָ֥א מֹשֶׁ֛ה לְכׇל־זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֑ם מִֽשְׁכ֗וּ וּקְח֨וּ לָכֶ֥ם צֹ֛אן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיכֶ֖ם וְשַׁחֲט֥וּ הַפָּֽסַח 

Moses then summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go, pick out lambs for your families, and slaughter the passover offering.

What does מִֽשְׁכ֗וּ וּקְח֨וּ לָכֶ֥ם צֹ֛אן mean?  

Pashut Pshat:

Targum Onkelos –  נְגִידוּ וְסִיבוּ לְכוֹן (מִן בְּנֵי) עָנָא  – translated in the Artscroll by Avrohom Morgenstern as “Draw forth and take lambs for yourselves.”

Translating this Pasuk like Onkelos are:

Sefaria –  “Go, pick out lambs for your families”

Artscroll – “Draw forth and take for yourselves”        

JPS,  Mechon Mamre,  and Soncino – Draw out and take you lambs,

Reb Shimshon Raphael Hirsch – Go out and take for yourselves

See Artscroll on Pasuk 12:6, note five that says, “Rashi explains why two verbs,   “משכו” –  “draw” and 

“קְח֨וּ” – “take” are used for a single action of taking.  What this note is saying that the plain meaning of these two verbs are used for a single action of taking, like Targum Onkelos.  Rashi both here 12:6 and 12:21 is the deeper meaning of the Pasuk.  As we delve into Pasuk 12:21 we see that there are four ways to Darshen the two words of שְׁכ֗וּ וּקְח֨וּ .

Interpretation #1

 Rashi:

משכו. מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צֹאן יִמְשֹׁךְ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ 

וקחו. מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יִקַּח מִן הַשּׁוּק 

Reb Yosef Ber Soloveichik (Rabbi AJ Rosenberg) – Draw forth or buy for yourselves..

Gutnick Lubavitch Chumash – Draw (from your own flock) or buy for yourselves         

Artscroll Green Tanach – Draw forth or buy for yourselves

What is interesting is that you see that although the Jews were slaves, they had property rights.  They owned flocks.

Interpretation #2 – Rashi on Verse 12:6:   

 ר’ יוסי הגלילי אומר, משכו מעבודה זרה והדבקו במצוה.

Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel – נְגוּדוּ יְדֵיכוֹן מִטַּעֲוַות מִצְרָאֵי וּסְבוּ לְכוֹן מִן בְּנֵי עָנָא    Withdraw your hands from the idols of the Mizraim, and take to you from the offspring of the flock.  Does not mention”sheep of a Mitzvah”

Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel did not quote Reb Yosi Hagelili completely.  He quotes the first half exactly as Rashi and the Mechlita to  withdraw from idol worship; however regarding the second half he does not say take a sheep and cling to the Mitzvah.    You could say that this is what he meant, but I am not happy with this Pshat.  

Discussion:

Rashi Verse 12:21 –  משכו. מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צֹאן יִמְשֹׁךְ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ 

 וקחו. מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יִקַּח מִן הַשּׁוּק   

However Rashi in 12:6 interpretes these words like the Drush Pshat.

            וּלְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁטוּפִין בֶּאֱלִילִים אָמַר לָהֶם משכו וקחו לכם, מִשְׁכוּ יְדֵיכֶם מֵאֱלִילִים, וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן שֶׁל מִצְוָה (מכילתא)

Question #1:

Why does Rashi on Verse 21 translate משכו וקחו differently? 

Answer:

The Seifsei Chacomin, which is the Mizrachi asks and answers this question.

  מי שיש לו צאן ימשוך משלו. והא דלא פי’ נמי הכא משכו ידיכם מעבודת אלילים כדפירש לעיל (פסוק ו). י”ל דהתם לאו בפירוש המקרא קאי אלא בטעם המצוה, ובטעם המצוה סגי אפי’ מילתא דאגדתא, אבל הכא מיירי בפירוש המקרא, לכן פי’ אותו היותר לפי פשוטו. [רא”ם]

English Translation of the Seifsei Chacomin from Sefaria:

Whoever owns lambs shall draw one of his own. Why does Rashi not explain this as he did above (v. 6), “Withdraw your hands from idol worship”? The answer is: Above, Rashi was not explaining the meaning of the verse, but the reason for the mitzvah. For that, a midrashic explanation is sufficient. But here Rashi is explaining the meaning of the verse; thus he offers its simple meaning (Re”m).

The two versions in Rashi is actually a Memra in the Mekhilta D’Rav Yismael who cites both interpretations and has another two:

Words of the Mekhilta:

משכו וקחו לכם. משכו מי שיש לו וקחו מי שאין לו. ר’ יוסי הגלילי אומר, משכו מעבודה זרה והדבקו במצוה. רבי ישמעאל אומר, בא הכתוב ללמד (על כל העולין) למנין על הפסח (ומושכין) [שמושכין] את ידיהם ממנו עד שישחט, ובלבד (שיניח) את הפסח (כל) [כמות] שהוא. ר’ יצחק אומר, בא (הפסח) [הכתוב] ללמדד על בהמה דקה שהיא נקנית במשיכה. 

English translation of the Mekhilta from Seferia:

“Draw forth and take for yourselves”: “Draw forth” — he who possesses his own; “and take” (i.e., acquire) — he who does not possess his own. R. Yossi Haglili says (The meaning is:) “Draw away from idol worship and cleave to mitzvoth.” R. Yishmael says: Scripture here comes to apprise us that one may number himself for (the eating of) the Paschal lamb, and he may “depart” from it, until it is slaughtered, so long as it is not left without any owners. R. Yitzchak says: Scripture comes to teach us that a small beast is acquired by (the act of) משיכה   

The list of the four interpretations as as follows:

1)     Tanna Kama-  משכו וקחו לכם. משכו מי שיש לו וקחו מי שאין לו 

 2)   ר’ יוסי הגלילי אומר, משכו מעבודה זרה והדבקו במצוה.

3)  רבי ישמעאל אומר, בא הכתוב ללמד (על כל העולין) למנין על הפסח שמושכין את ידיהם ממנו עד שישחט,   

      ובלבד (שיניח) את הפסח (כל) [כמות] שהוא.

 4)    ר’ יצחק אומר, בא (הפסח) [הכתוב] ללמדד על בהמה דקה שהיא נקנית במשיכה.

Mishna in Kiddushin 25b and the Yerushalmi has an identical Mishna:

מַתְנִי’ בְּהֵמָה גַּסָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְסִירָה וְהַדַּקָּה בְּהַגְבָּהָה דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה

Yerushalmi Chapter 1, Mishna 4:

משנה: בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה בִּמְסִירָה וְהַדַּקָּה בְּהַגְבָּהָה דִּבְרֵי רִבִּי מֵאִיר וְרִבִּי אֶלְעָזָר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה.

The Gemora Yerushalmi  says what is the source of the Chachomin

וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים. בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה. מַה טַעֲמוֹן דְּרַבָּנִין. מִשְׁכוּ וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתֵיכֶם.

 Clearly the Chacomin that hold  a  בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה  is acquired with מְשִׁיכָה agree with Reb Yitzchok.  The presumption is that Reb Meir who holds that a בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה is acquired with lifting is like the Tanna Kammah, even though the Tanna Kammah does not say this directly.   

How does Reb Yitzchok learn   מְשִׁיכָה  from the Pasuk?  If he translates the Pasuk like the Tanna Kamma that Rashi brings down that משכו מי שיש לו וקחו מי שאין לו, how does he learn his Chiddush that בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה.  The acquisition is going on the  קחו  and not on the משכו .

Comes along the Malbim and explains Reb Yitzchok.  The Malbim also says that the Tanna Kama is Reb Meir.  

Malbim:

משכו וקחו לכם . . . במ”ש משכו וקחו, שהוא לדעת ר’ יצחק שמ”ש משכו הוא שמי שאין לו צריך לקנות הצאן במשיכה, והוא כדעת חכמים בקדושין (דף כה ע”ב), דבהמה דקה נקנית במשיכה, וכן  *פרש”י ז”ל משכו מי שאין לו וקחו מי שיש לו, ומ”ד במכילתא משכו מי שיש לו וקחו מי שא”ל ס”ל כר’ מאיר בקדושין [שס] דבהמה דקה נקנית בהגבהה, ועז”א וקחו מי שא”ל שיקח ויגבהנו, ומי שי”ל ימשך ליחדו למצוה, וריה”ג מפרש ע”ד הרמב”ם שימשכו ידיהם מע”ז, כי עיקר טעם הפסח היה לבטל ע”ז שלהם שהיו עובדים למזל טלה, והוסיף ושחטו הפסח ולא אמר ושחטו אותם ללמד שישחט לשם פסח ואם שחט שלא לשמה פסול כמו שלמד בזבחים (דף ז) בכמה למודים:

*I do not know where this Rashi is located.

Based on the Malbim משכו וקחו has four different explanations

1)   Rashi like the Tannah Kammah of the Mekhilta:

      Rashi Verse 12:21   –  משכו. מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צֹאן יִמְשֹׁךְ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ 

                                            וקחו. מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יִקַּח מִן הַשּׁוּק   

2)  Reb Yitzchok who  explains these words opposite of the Tannah Kamah/Rashi.

                        משכו. מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹצריך לקנות הצאן במשיכה  

                                                                                      וקחו. מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ ימשך ליחדו למצוה    

 3)  Reb Yose Haglili who explains Reb Yose Haglili

מפרש ע”ד הרמב”ם שימשכו ידיהם מע”ז, כי עיקר טעם הפסח היה לבטל ע”ז שלהם   שהיו עובדים למזל טלה      

4)  Reb Yishmael explains these words as referring  to  allowing the withdrawal from one group and adding yourself to another group before the actual slaughter of the Korban Pesach.

(provided the first sheep has an owner).

When  I learned and understood this Mekhilta unfortunately I did not feel that I was standing in the presence of these Tanauim, Reb Meir, Reb Yossi Hagelili, Reb Yismael, and Reb Yitzchok, and the Malbim.   This is because my sins have caused me to lose this feeling.  I hope one day to discuss it with them.

On Shabbos I was looking at a new Sefer written by Rabbi Shlomo Morgenstern on the Targum Yerushalmi and saw a beautiful addition to my Torah.  The Targum Yerushalmi translated in Aramaic the words “משכו וקחו” as אתמנון וסבו . Rabbi Shlomo Morgenstern in his explanation says that the word משכו is to be translated the same way as the Targum Yerushalmi translated the word תָּכֹ֖סּוּ in Pasuk 4 – וְאִם־יִמְעַ֣ט הַבַּ֘יִת֮ מִהְי֣וֹת מִשֶּׂה֒ וְלָקַ֣ח ה֗וּא וּשְׁכֵנ֛וֹ הַקָּרֹ֥ב אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ בְּמִכְסַ֣ת נְפָשֹׁ֑ת אִ֚ישׁ לְפִ֣י אׇכְל֔וֹ משכו עַל־הַשֶּֽׂה׃.  The Targum Yerushalmi   תָּכֹ֖סּוּ is תִּתְמְנוּן in Aramaic. The Artscroll translates Verse 4 as “so shall you be counted for the lamb/kid.

 Comes out that according to the Targum Yeruchalmi both  משכו and  תָּכֹ֖סּוּ mean to be  counted.   Normally  משכו means to draw out so why does the Targum change the meaning of משכו to תָּכֹ֖סּוּ .    

A) The Targum was bothered by the same question as the other  תנאים, why did the Torah use two verbs to describe the same action, so they understood that they are not to be interpreted as the same verbs. B) Then how are we to translate the word משכו?    I spoke to Rabbi Avrohom Isenberg who told me that whenever the Targum Yerushalmi translates a word differently than the normal Pshat you have to look at Remez and Sod.   The Gematria of  משכו וקחו is 486, the same Gmatria of  תָּכֹ֖סּוּ.   The Targum Yerushalmi is therefore learning like Reb Yishmoel of the Mekhilta and they hold  that the word משכו means that you can do a counting after you withdraw from an original counting which you can do up until the slaughter of the animal. 

Perhaps the reason why Reb Yismoel did not learn like the Tanna Kama and Reb Yitzchok is that this Pasuk is talking about Hilchos Korban Pesach which is the same Inyan while the Tanna Kama and Reb Yitzhcok are in Hilchos Kinyan.  Perhaps also since the Tanna Kama and Reb Yitzchok use the same words two different ways for the concept of Kinyan, Reb Yishmoel felt that their explanations are not correct.  Therefore there is  no limud of Kinyan from this Pasuk. Reb Yishmoel did not learn like Reb Yosi Hagelili as the Sefisei Chacomin said that Reb Yossi Hagelili  is Aggdata. 

Gur Aryeh adds the source of Reb Yossi Hagelili

משכו מי שיש לו צאן ימשוך משלו כו’. אף על גב דלעיל פירש (רש”י פסוק ו) “משכו וקחו” ‘משכו ידיכם מעבודה זרה ו

קחו לכם צאן של מצוה’, אין המקרא יוצא מידי פשוטו *(יבמות כד. ), וצריך לפרש “משכו” מי שיש לו ימשוך משלו, “וקחו” וגו’, אלא שקשה דלמה לי למכתב, דפשוט מי שיש לו ימשוך משלו, ולא היה צריך לומר “[משכו] וקחו צאן”, ולכך דרשינן “משכו” ידיכם מעבודה זרה “וקחו” צאן של מצוה:

I would add that perhaps the main Drasha of Reb Yossi Hagleli  is from the word “לָכֶ֥ם” in מִֽשְׁכ֗וּ וּקְח֨וּ לָכֶ֥ם צֹ֛אן.  If you take something of course it is yours.  Therefore Reb Yose Hagelili says that the Korban  Pesach is your mitzvah, so that you will have the merit to leave Egypt.  The Malbim and Torah Teminah add a beautiful wrinkle.

The Torah Temimah says on Reb Yosi Hagalili – משכו וקחו. משכו מי שיש לו וקחו מי שאין לו קפזכלומר קנו מי שאין לו, ומפרש קחו מלשון קנין וכמ”ש בקדושין ב’ א’ קיחה אקרי קנין וכמ”ש בירמיה ל”ב שדות בכסף יקנו. , ר’ יוסי הגלילי אומר משכו מעבודת כוכבים והדבקו במצוה קפחנראה הבאור ע”פ מש”כ הרמב”ם במורה פ”ל משלישי דתכלית מצות הקרבנות היתה מפני שקשה היה לישראל להפרד ממנהגי האומות בזביחתם והקטרתם לאלהיהם, ולכן נצטוו להתרגל בעבודה זו בקודש לשם ה’. ואע”פ שהרבו לטעון נגד הרמב”ם בענין זה, אבל האמת הוא, כי יש לו להרמב”ם על מי להשען, ודבריו ממקום קדוש יהלכון, שכן מ

בואר במ”ר פ’ אחרי, איש איש וגו’ אשר ישחט, משל לבן מלך שלבו היה גס עליו והוא למוד לאכול נבילות וטריפות, אמר המלך, יאכל על שלחן זה תדיר ומעצמו הוא נוזר [פורש], כך לפי שהיו ישראל להוטים אחר ע”ז והיו מביאים קרבנותיהם לשעירים באיסור ופורעניות בא עליהם, אמר הקב”ה, יהיו מקריבים קרבנותיהם לפני באהל מועד והם נפרשים מע”ז, ע”כ. וזה מורה ממש כדברי המורה, ויותר מזה הכתוב עצמו מורה מפורש כדבריו, והוא בפ’ אחרי במצות קרבנות מסיים למען וגו’ ולא יזבחו עוד וגו’ לשעירים, יעו”ש. והנה גם ממאמר זה שלפנינו משכו מע”ז והדבקו במצוה יש סמוכים נאמנים לדעת הרמב”ם. ועפי”ז יש לפרש לשון הגמרא בתמורה ל’ ב’ עה”פ דפ’ פינחס תשמרו להקריב לי במועדו, לי ולא לאדון אחר, יעו”ש לפנינו. .

The final Torah on Bo 12:21 from the Kotzker.

December 18, 2021 – Parshas Vayechi

Week in Toronto

Shem Hagedolim Hachadash and the Tur HaAruch

Ateres Mordechai – Rabbi Bitterman

Noam Horowitz – Matt Schwartz

I purchased these two Seforim at the Lubavitch in Chabad Gate, the Shem Hagedolin Hachadash and the Tur HaAruch.

It is interesting to note that in the Shem Hagedolim Hachadosh’s face page,  the author’s name is not listed.  The Chida is listed.  This Sefer is a continuation of the Chida’s Sefer, Shem Hagedolim.  Rabbi Ahron Walden updated the Chida’s Sefer with a list of Rabbis and scholars where the Chida’s sefer ends.  The Chida died in 1806.

I was made aware of the Tur HaAruch through Sefaria.  I was overjoyed to obtain my own copy of this Reshon.

Spent this week in Toronto.   My mother in law is doing well.

December 17, 2021 – Friday night 

Davened in the building.  They require masks and the Gabbai lectured everyone.  Very distasteful.

Had a great meal with my mother- in-law. After the meal went to visit Yosef and Heather Kelman.  Yosef Kelman is Auntie Ruthie’s grandson.  Auntie Ruthie is my mother-in-law’s sister.  Yosef’s mother, Beverly, was my Shadchan. Yosef and Heather’s daughter is getting married in Lakewood during January 2022.   Heather is a runner and has corresponded with Beatie Duetsch.  We had running in common.     I found out that Heather grew up in Denver, CO.  In November I was in Denver for the 50th anniversary of Yeshiva Toras Chaim’s first graduation class and we spoke about Denver.   Yosef Kelman has a beautiful family and is doing well. The below is a picture of his mother in the high chair, his grandparents, Marvin and Ruth Lister, and his great grandparents, Rabbi Leibush and Zelda Bayla Noble.

Zelda Baila Noble (my mother-in-law’s mother), Ruth Noble-Lister, Rabbi Leibush Noble, with Beverley in the high chair.

December 18, 2021 – Shabbos Morning

Got up at 1:00 AM, read and learned Chumash.  Went back to sleep at 4:00 AM.  Got up at 8:00 AM.  Walked to Ateras Mordechai, Rabbi Bitterman is the Rabbi.  It was snowing and for me this was the first snow of the season.  The first snow of the season is beautiful and I felt joy, a lightness.  I was invited by Jason Lapidus to daven at his Shul.  I sat with the South African contingent at Ateres Mordechai.

The Shul is at 230 Arnold, a converted home.  I was invited there by Jason Lapidus.  They davened relatively slowly.  There was a Bar Mitzvah, last name of the family is Dabush.  The boy leined nicely.  His Bar Mitzvah speech was on the father’s Bracha of Bracha Sh’Petrani.   

Rabbi Bitterman spoke nicely on the following Verses 50:15-21, especially Verse 50:17. 

Verse 15 – וַיִּרְא֤וּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף֙ כִּי־מֵ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ ל֥וּ יִשְׂטְמֵ֖נוּ יוֹסֵ֑ף וְהָשֵׁ֤ב יָשִׁיב֙ לָ֔נוּ אֵ֚ת כׇּל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּמַ֖לְנוּ אֹתֽוֹ׃

Verse 16 – וַיְצַוּ֕וּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף לֵאמֹ֑ר אָבִ֣יךָ צִוָּ֔ה לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹת֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר

Verse 17

כֹּֽה־תֹאמְר֣וּ לְיוֹסֵ֗ף אָ֣נָּ֡א שָׂ֣א נָ֠א פֶּ֣שַׁע אַחֶ֤יךָ וְחַטָּאתָם֙ כִּי־רָעָ֣ה גְמָל֔וּךָ וְעַתָּה֙ שָׂ֣א נָ֔א לְפֶ֥שַׁע עַבְדֵ֖י אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֑יךָ וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ יוֹסֵ֖ף בְּדַבְּרָ֥ם

אֵלָֽיו׃

Verse 18 – וַיֵּלְכוּ֙ גַּם־אֶחָ֔יו וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ לְפָנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ הִנֶּ֥נּֽוּ לְךָ֖ לַעֲבָדִֽים

Verse 19 – וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֛ם יוֹסֵ֖ף אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ כִּ֛י הֲתַ֥חַת אֱלֹהִ֖ים אָֽנִי

Verse 20 – וְאַתֶּ֕ם חֲשַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָלַ֖י רָעָ֑ה אֱלֹהִים֙ חֲשָׁבָ֣הּ לְטֹבָ֔ה לְמַ֗עַן עֲשֹׂ֛ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה לְהַחֲיֹ֥ת עַם־רָֽב

Verse 21 – וְעַתָּה֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אוּ אָנֹכִ֛י אֲכַלְכֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם וְאֶֽת־טַפְּכֶ֑ם וַיְנַחֵ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לִבָּֽם

Rabbi Bitterman commented on Yosef’s crying.  Yosef cried because he realized that their fighting was so counterproductive.  He was responsible for the animosity.  How much was lost because they fought.  They did not grow and lost many opportunities to move forward.  People fight over nothing.  He mentioned a Rabbi Efraim Goldberg story, https://mishpacha.com/what-kind-of-friend/., how a little mistake can create major fights.   Rabbi Bitterman said how many family fights are over nothing and years later, people do not even know why they are fighting.    Rabbi Bitterman mentioned the story of Kamtza and Ben Kamitza.  

After the davening, I stayed for the Kiddush.  Delicious.  I sat across from Jason Lapidus, Sheldon Tennabaum, and Stan Vanik; and next to Douglas Chillovitz.  Douglas Chillovitz employed my nephew, Dovie Janowski.  Dovie’s mother told me that Doug Chillovitz is a nice guy and was good to Dovie.  I told them my Torah from this week that I learned in the early morning.

I ended up being the last to leave.   I looked around to find someone to walk with however, no one was around.  I started walking home.  On Atkinson near Clark I saw someone walking in the opposite direction, wearing a knit hat.  I stopped him and asked where he Davened this Shabbos morning.  He davened at Netivot.   I asked him if I could say over my Torah and he said yes.  I started and after a few minutes, I said that I do not want to hold him from his Shabbos meal.  He said no problem with me saying over the Torah and that he would walk me.  I asked, but you are walking the opposite way from your destination, and he said no problem.   He turned and  accompanied me.   After I finished my Vort we were at Clark and Hilda, across the street from my mother in law.  I was not sure if he was married and asked if he wanted to come over for lunch?  He told me that he is married and has four kids.  I apologized for making him late for his family meal.  He said no problem.   I asked his name and he is Noam Horowitz.  He is a Levi and from the Shelah Hakodesh.  He learned in the Gush.  I told him how much I love Rabbi Moshe Teragin,  https://mizrachi.org/speaker/rabbi-moshe-taragin/.   Rabbi Moshe Teragin is one of the few people in the world that can say Torah in perfect English, using the right descriptive words, being efficient while speaking, and able to teach and be understood.  Additionally, he teaches history while he speaks Torah.  I mentioned that my nephews learned at the Gush, Matt and Elyasaf Schwartz.  He responded, of course.  I am good friends with Matt and that they were also  together at YU.  His Rebbi was Rabbi Rosenzweig.  After Shabbos Matt told me that Noam Horowitz is a great guy, will do anything, has a great wife, and four cute kids.  Noam Schartz walking me, and going out of his way is Noam Horowitz.  He is an inspirational Rebbe.  Gevaldig.  I  met the only person who knows Matt Schwartz in Toronto.

Got to my mother in law, walking on a cloud. Had the Shabbos meal, cold cuts sandwiches.  

Torah #1 – the Theme of Yakov Kissing and being Kissed:

This week I focused on kissing.  It seems that more than anyone else in the Torah, kissing played a role in Yakov’s life.  How are we to understand this?  Is it just happenstance or is there something deeper.  

We find Yakov kissing or being kissed in the following six times:

1 – Yitzchok kissing Yakov when he blessed Yakov posing as Eisav.   Berehsis 17:27 –  וַיִּגַּשׁ֙ וַיִּשַּׁק־ל֔וֹ וַיָּ֛רַח אֶת־רֵ֥יחַ בְּגָדָ֖יו וַֽיְבָרְכֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר רְאֵה֙ רֵ֣יחַ בְּנִ֔י כְּרֵ֣יחַ שָׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּרְכ֖וֹ יְהֹוָֽה

2 – When he meets Rochel for the first time

Bereshis 29:11 – וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק יַעֲקֹ֖ב לְרָחֵ֑ל וַיִּשָּׂ֥א אֶת־קֹל֖וֹ וַיֵּֽבְךְּ׃.   Rashi comments on why Yakov cried and gives two reasons.    ויבך. לְפִי שֶׁצָּפָה בְרוּח הַקֹּדֶש שֶאֵינָהּ נִכְנֶסֶת עִמּוֹ לִקְבוּרָה. דָּ”אַ לְפִי שֶׁבָּא בְּיָדַיִם רֵקָנִיּוֹת; אָמַר, אֱלִיעֶזֶר עֶבֶד אֲבִי אַבָּא הָיוּ בְיָדָיו נְזָמִים וּצְמִידִים וּמִגְדָּנוֹת וַאֲנִי אֵין בְּיָדִי כְלוּם; לְפִי שֶׁרָדַף אֶלִיפַז בֶּן עֵשָׂו בְּמִצְוַת אָבִיו אַחֲרָיו לְהָרְגוֹ וְהִשִּׂיגוֹ, וּלְפִי שֶׁגָּדַל אֶלִיפַז בְּחֵיקוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק, מָשַׁךְ יָדָיו. אָמַר לוֹ מָה אֱעֱשֶׂה לַצִּוּוּי שֶׁל אַבָּא? אָמַר לוֹ יַעֲקֹב טֹל מַה שֶּׁבְּיָדִי, וְהֶעָנִי חָשׁוּב כַּמֵּת.

Both reasons are powerful.  Yakov found his soulmate, the love of his life, the one who he would give his everything to.  Rashi says that Yakov saw with his holy spirit that they would not be buried together.  Yakov’s kiss with Rochel was tragic.    Yakov sensed that something would happen that would get in the way of true happiness in marriage.  He cries over this impending darkness.  

3 – Lavan kissing and hugging Yakov.  Bereshis  29:13 – וַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ לָבָ֜ן אֶת־שֵׁ֣מַע ׀ יַעֲקֹ֣ב בֶּן־אֲחֹת֗וֹ וַיָּ֤רׇץ לִקְרָאתוֹ֙ וַיְחַבֶּק־לוֹ֙ וַיְנַשֶּׁק־ל֔וֹ וַיְבִיאֵ֖הוּ אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ וַיְסַפֵּ֣ר לְלָבָ֔ן אֵ֥ת כׇּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה.

Lavan kissed and hugged Yosef not out of love but to see if Yakov was hiding diamonds in his mouth and money around his chest.  Lavan reasoned that Eliezer, the servant of Avrohom, come with ten camels full of riches, so he thought Yakov would also be coming with great wealth,  Lavan did not see camels laden with riches, so he kissed and hugged to see if Yakov was hiding the wealth on his body  protecting it from thieves.  This kissing has an ulterior motive.  Yakov tells Lavan that he is penniless and the reason as Rashi says in 29:13.   .ויספר ללבן. שֶׁלֹּא בָא אֶלָּא מִתּוֹך אֹנֶס אָחִיו, וְשֶׁנָּטְלוּ מָמוֹנוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ

Yakov feels compelled to say what happened.  Not sure if Yakov admitted to taking the Brochos deceitfully, but he did reveal that Eisav wants to kill Yakov and he gave his money to Eliphaz.  Lavan got the upper hand, as Yakov is a pauper, estranged from his family.   He knew that Yakov did something to antagonize his brother and that Yakov could not go home.

This is another example of Yakov divulging too much information.  See my Torah from last year. 

4  – When Yosef revealed himself to his brothers, he kissed his brothers. 

        Bereshis 45:15 – וַיְנַשֵּׁ֥ק לְכׇל־אֶחָ֖יו וַיֵּ֣בְךְּ עֲלֵהֶ֑ם וְאַ֣חֲרֵי כֵ֔ן דִּבְּר֥וּ אֶחָ֖יו אִתּֽוֹ 

5 – hugging and kissing Ephraim and Menashe

         Bereshis 48:10 – וְעֵינֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כָּבְד֣וּ מִזֹּ֔קֶן לֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְא֑וֹת וַיַּגֵּ֤שׁ אֹתָם֙ אֵלָ֔יו וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק לָהֶ֖ם וַיְחַבֵּ֥ק לָהֶֽם

The Sferno says   –וישק להם ויחבק להם כדי שתדבק נפשו בהם ותחול עליהם ברכתו.

Translated as “the physical contact was designed to make Yaakov more attached to them so that his blessing would be correspondingly more effective.”

6  – when Yakov passes away.  Pasuk 50:1 – וַיִּפֹּ֥ל יוֹסֵ֖ף עַל־פְּנֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ עָלָ֖יו וַיִּשַּׁק־לֽוֹ 

It does say in Verse 32:1  that Lavan kissed his daughters and grandchildren – וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם לָבָ֜ן בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיְנַשֵּׁ֧ק לְבָנָ֛יו וְלִבְנוֹתָ֖יו וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֶתְהֶ֑ם וַיֵּ֛לֶךְ וַיָּ֥שׇׁב לָבָ֖ן לִמְקֹמֽוֹ׃, however, since it was not Yakov we will ignore it.

Let us trace Yakov’s life using the above mileposts.  

Yakov is kissed by his father and results in getting the blessings in a deceptive manner.  This is the beginning of the tragedy of Yakov’s life and is the סיבּה, the cause of all of Yakov’s trevails.  Yakov deceives his brother.  His brother swears revenge and Yakov has to flee.  As Yakov was making his way to Choron, he is overtaken by Eliphaz who is told to kill Yakov.  Yakov gives Eliphaz  all of his money and Yakov arrives at Choron penniless.  He does not arrive at his uncle’s home as the honored family member.  As a result he has to work for Lavan for seven years for Rochel’s hand in marriage.  Yakov is tricked to marry Leah and Leah’s justification is that Yakov tricked his own brother Eisav, saying whatever goes around, comes around.  Yakov is powerless to dictate anything because he arrived in a weakened position.    Had Yakov come with money, Yakov would have been treated as an honored guest and in all likelihood married Rochel immediately without any trickey and having to marry Leah.   Yakov sensed this tragedy when he kissed Rochel. All this traces itself back to when Yakov deceived his father.  

The dysfunction continues.  Yakov’s marriage to Leah created friction in his marriages  and between the brothers.  This friction leads to animosity and the animosity leads to the brothers selling Yosef and splitting the family.  Yosef is sold into slavery and Yakov does not see his beloved son for twenty two years.  During this time Yosef became monarch in Egypt.  Finally at age 130 father and son are reunited.   It takes a dramatic scene of Yosef revealing to his brothers that this despot, this Egyptian they were dealing with, is indeed their brother and Yosef kisses them and they cry.  This is the kiss of Godliness, of brotherhood, of unity.    

Yakov is now 130 years old and is able to live out the last seventeen years of his life in total peace and harmony.  As the Medresh Rabah says, 96:1, דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה הִיא סְתוּמָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסָּתַם מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל צָרוֹת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם and the Kli Yakur elaborates:

 וללשון שלישי הדורש, לפי שנסתמו ממנו כל צרות שבעולם יאמר הכתוב אע״פ שהיה כל ימיו בצרה וגרות כמ״ש ימי מגורי ק״ל שנה מעט ורעים, מ״מ לגודל השלוה שהיה לו תוך י״ז שנים שראה ישיבת בניו בשלום ויאחזו בארץ ויפרו וירבו נשכחו ממנו כל הצרות הראשונות שעברו עליו והיו כלא היו, לכך נאמר ויהי ימי יעקב שני חייו קמ״ז שנה כי *אותן ק״ל שנים לא היו נחשבים מכלל ימי חייו לגודל צרותיו, ועכשיו למפרע נחשבו כולם שני חייו, וזה לפי שנסתמו ממנו כל הצרות שעברו וכאילו היה חי חיים נעימים ועריבים בכל שנותיו, שהרי באמת יוסף היה חי, לכך סמך ויחי יעקב אל הפסוק הקודם,              

The Kli Yakur is explaining the first pasuk on a deeper level than the plain meaning.  The plain meaning is that Yosef lived for 17 years in Egypt and his total life was 147 years.

                   *וַיְחִ֤י יַעֲקֹב֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם שְׁבַ֥ע עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה וַיְהִ֤י יְמֵֽי־יַעֲקֹב֙ שְׁנֵ֣י חַיָּ֔יו שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֔ים וְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָֽה 

               “Jacob lived seventeen years in the land of Egypt, so that the span of Jacob’s life came to one 

                hundred and forty-seven years.” 

    The Medresh and Kli Yakur are saying that Yakov’s life of 17 years in Egypt was in 

    such bliss and peace, that Yakov was able to forget the pain and

                suffering of the first 130 years of his life, so much so that he felt as if he lived for 147 years in

                goodness and sweetness.  To expand on this, Yakov felt that he did not live the first 130

                years.  He was tossed and turned by life and he had no control over life.   He could not smell 

                the roses and every breath he took was loaded with stress.  Once he went to Egypt and was

    supported by Yosef and surrounded by his other kids, did he feel alive.  He had a joy of

    waking up every day.   

Now that Yakov has had 17 years of life of peace and harmony, he is able to kiss his grandchildren with this same kiss of Godliness that Yitzchok blessed him with, however, that kiss ended in tragedy and Yakov kiss was full of light and ended in greatness for his grandchildren.  

As Yakov leaves this world, Yosef kisses his father, the kiss of one’s soul being bound up in another soul.

Torah #2:

The Tur HaAruch and understanding the kiss and hug Yakov gave to Ephraim and Menassha:

This past Tuesday I davend in Lubavitch on Chabad Gate in Toronto.    There is a bookstore in Lubavitch and they have many older Seforim on sale.  I picked up two Seforim that I was looking for for years.  One is a Shem Hagdolim Hachodesh by Rabbi Ahron Walden, published in 1864.  He has  two great paragraphs of a first person account of the Kotzker.  It is very poetic and draws on many Pesukim in which one has to understand.   I had Barnea Sellavan translate it.  The second is the Tur HaAruch.  I did not know that the Tur HaAruch existed until I saw it on Sefaria a number of years ago.  I was B’Simcha Gedolah when I found these Sefroima nd was able to purchase.

Torah on Verse 48:10.

#1 – The Tur HaAruch:

וְעֵינֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כָּבְד֣וּ מִזֹּ֔קֶן לֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְא֑וֹת וַיַּגֵּ֤שׁ אֹתָם֙ אֵלָ֔יו וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק לָהֶ֖ם וַיְחַבֵּ֥ק לָהֶֽם

This Pasuk is saying that Yakov was blind from old age and he (Yosef) brought Ephraim and  Menashe close to Yakov.  Yakov hugged and kissed them.

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The Tur HaAruch says 

וישק להם ויחבק להם. שאין שכינה שורה אלא מתוך שמחה וכדרך שנעשה לו שאביו חבקו ונשקו כשברכו:

Yakov hugged and kissed his two grandchildren to create Simcha so that the Schinah should rest on him to bless his grandchildren, just like Yitzxhok kissed Yakov posing as Eisav.  However in Bereshis Verses 27:26 and 27:27 speaks to the kiss of Yakov, as follows:

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Bereshis 27:26 – וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֑יו גְּשָׁה־נָּ֥א וּשְׁקָה־לִּ֖י בְּנִֽי׃

Bereshis 27:27 –  וַיִּגַּשׁ֙ וַיִּשַּׁק־ל֔וֹ וַיָּ֛רַח אֶת־רֵ֥יחַ בְּגָדָ֖יו וַֽיְבָרְכֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר רְאֵה֙ רֵ֣יחַ בְּנִ֔י כְּרֵ֣יחַ שָׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּרְכ֖וֹ יְהֹוָֽה׃

Translated as:

And Yitzchok his father ssiad come close and kiss me, my son.   Yakov approaches and kisses his father and smells the smell of his clothes and he blesses him, saying see the smell of my son is that of a field that Hashem has blessed.

However, the Tur HaAruch does not say that Yitzchok’s kiss was done to create Simcha. The Tur HaAruch gives a very practical reason –    

גשה נא ושקה לי בני. אמר הנה שני סימנין בקול דומה ליעקב במשוש דומה לעשו אראה עוד סימן ג’ בבגדיו ויכריע בין 

ב’ סימנים ועל כן כשקרב אליו והריח ריח בגדי עשו ברכו:  

Yitzchok was not sure who was standing in front of him,  Yitzchok performed one more test to see if he has an earthy smell or would the person smell like Yakov, so he kissed him to test him.  Yirzchok was being practical.  Kissing his son, Yizchok smelled the smell of the field (not someone sitting in the Bais Medrash), confirmed in his mind it was Eisav and blessed him.  

We seem to have a contradiction in the Tur HaAruch.  In Breshis 27:27 the Tur HaAruch gave a practical reason for Yitzchok’s kiss, for a test;  however, in the week’s Sedra the Tur HaAruch refers back to Yitzchok’s kiss and said it generated Simcha.  Both kisses in VaYicha and in Toldos were for Simcha. 

The answer is that while true the purpose of the kiss was very practical, the outcome was that it created great Simcha.  What was the joy?  On a simple level you can say that Yakov felt he had proof that the person in front of him was Eisav and was now happy that he can give a Bracha to Eisav.   In both cases the kiss created joy, by Ephreim and Menashe he hugged and kissed to create joy, by Yitzchok the outcome of the kiss was joy and Yitzchok had clarity.  I think the answer is much deeper than this.  Yitzchok already had a good meal and wine.  Knowing with clarity would seem to bring some joy,  but not great joy.  

I think the Pshet is that Yitzhok’s kiss created unbelievable joy for him and this is what the Tur HaAruch is saying.  Everyone asks the question, what was Yitzchok thinking? He knew Eisav was an evil person, albeit mitigated by Eisav’s fulfillment of honoring his parents.    The mainstream answer said by Rabbi Aaron Solovechik in 1974 is that Yitzchok options were to either give the blessing to Eisav and teach Eisav to do good, after all Eisav excelled in the commandment of honoring one’s father and mother;  or give the Bracha to Yakov, who was physically and emotionally  weak, not equipped with the strength to be the foundation of the Jewish perople.  Yitzchok felt it is best to give the blessing to Eisav and Rivka understood the disaster that would occur if Eisav received the blessing. 

When Yitzchok kisses the person in front of him and smells a field, it is a field of blossoming floors, a touch of Gan Eden. As Rashi on this Pasuk says,

 “ ’וירח וגו AND HE SMELLED etc.— Surely there is no more offensive smell than that of washed goat-skins! But Scripture implicitly tells us that the perfume of the Garden of Eden entered the room with him (Genesis Rabbah 65:22)”  . 

The smell of blossoming flowers, enhanced by the smell of Gan Eden brought tremendous  Simcha to Yitzchok.   Yitzchok according to the  Tur HaArcuh has now confirmed in his mind that Eisav is standing in front of him ready to receive the blessing and Yitzchok smells Gan Eden.  Yitzchok is overjoyed.  He confirmed in his mind that he made the right decision, Eisav is the correct person to receive the blessing of the nation of Israel.  This was his great Simcha and this is the comparison between the two kisses, one in Toldos and the other in Vayechi.     

This is exactly what the Tur HaAruch is effectively saying in his next piece on the next Pasuk, which discusses the actual kiss.  

ראה ריח בני כריח שדה. פי’ ראה הוא הדבור במחשבת הלב שאמר בלבו ודאי עשו הוא זה שריח בגדיו מריחים כריח השדה פי’ כציצי הפרחים שהוא איש שדה וקלטו בגדיו ריח השדה ועל כן ברכו. וי”מ שהיה בגדיו מגומרים בבשמים הגדלים בשדה:

ראה ריח בני כריח שדה, “indeed the fragrance of my son is like the fragrance of the field.” The meaning of the word ראה here is that the expression does not reflect something Yitzchok saw with his eyes, but that this is what he observed internally, when thinking about what his son Esau’s presence projected. He felt that there could not be any doubt that of his two sons it was Esau who represented the fragrance of blossoming flowers and all the blessings associated with nature when it unfolds. This is why he determined to accord him the blessing. Other commentators see in this statement about the fragrance simply a reference to the perfume with which Esau sprayed his garments, something which matched what could be found in the field.

Torah #3 – Yakov’s blindness and kissing and hugging his two grandchildren are in the same Pasuk, Verse 48:10.  Is there a connection?

Bereshis 48:10 – וְעֵינֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כָּבְד֣וּ מִזֹּ֔קֶן לֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְא֑וֹת וַיַּגֵּ֤שׁ אֹתָם֙ אֵלָ֔יו וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק לָהֶ֖ם וַיְחַבֵּ֥ק לָהֶֽם

Pasuk is saying that Yakov was blind because of old age.  The same Pasuk that talks about his blindness also says Yakov hugged and kissed his two grandchildren.  There seems to be a connection. 

 I believe that the answer is based on the above Torah.  Kissing represents connecting to someone one a deep level, your soul’s touch one arbiter.  I believe that the juxtaposition of Yakov’s blindness and his kissing his two grandchildren is to tell us although a poor person and a blind person are both considered “dead”, when Yakov lost his money before going to Choron, this was “death” for Yakov.  This led to bad outcomes in Yakov’s life.  You can even say that Yitzchaks blindness also led to “death”, to the deception which defined UYakov’s life for years and not seeing Yakov for 22 years.   However, in this Parsha Yakov’s blindness did not result in “death”.  Yakov saw and radiated light.  He woke up every day with joy knowing that he had another day to be with his family, to learn Torah with his grandchildren.  He was able to kiss and hug his grandchildren to pass on Yakov’s neshama of purity and holiness.  

An alternative explanation  and other Reshonim discussing Yakov’s blindness.  

The Ohr Hachaim is bothered by this connection and says:

ועיני ישראל וגו’. צריך לדעת למה כתיב הודעה זו במקום זה, ומה קשר ושייכות לדבר זה עם הסמוך לו וישק להם ויחבק להם. עוד צריך לדעת אומרו להם שהיה לו לומר וישק אותם. ואולי ששני דקדוקים אלו כל אחת מתרצת חברתה כי לצד שכבדו עיניו מזוקן היה מחבק שלא במקום החיבוק ומנשק שלא במקום הנישוק ולזה אמר להם ולא אמר אותם והבן:

Israel’s eyes were heavy with old age, etc. Why did the Torah choose this point to inform us of Jacob’s failing eyesight? What does it have to do with his proceeding to embrace and kiss Joseph’s children? Besides, why did the Torah have to describe these kisses as להם instead of אותם? Perhaps one of these details will help us understand the other detail. Jacob embraced the children in the wrong places and kissed them in the wrong places due to his failing eyesight. If that were true the expression להם instead of אותם is quite understandable.

The Ohr Hachaim’s explanation leaves us wanting more.

 Contrast Yakov blindness to Yitzchok’s, Verse 27:1

וַֽיְהִי֙ כִּֽי־זָקֵ֣ן יִצְחָ֔ק וַתִּכְהֶ֥יןָ עֵינָ֖יו מֵרְאֹ֑ת וַיִּקְרָ֞א אֶת־עֵשָׂ֣ו ׀ בְּנ֣וֹ הַגָּדֹ֗ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ בְּנִ֔י וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו הִנֵּֽנִי׃

Rashi says ותכהין. בַּעֲשָׁנָן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ. דָּ”אַ כְּשֶׁנֶּעֱקַד עַ”גַּ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהָיָה אָבִיו רוֹצֶה לְשָׁחֳטוֹ, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִפְתְּחוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְרָאוּ-  מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְהָיוּ בוֹכִים, וְיָרְדוּ דִמְעוֹתֵיהֶם וְנָפְלוּ עַל עֵינָיו, לְפִיכָךְ כָּהוּ עֵינָיו. דָּ”אַ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטֹּל יַעֲקֹב אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת 

Notice that Rashi does not say that he lost his sight due to old age, even though the Pasuk says he was  old. The Rashban says that Yitzchok did lose his sight because of old age.

Rashbam –  ותכהין עיניו – מן הזקנה, כמו שמצינו בספר שמואל: ועיניו החלו כהות.

The Netziv in his Hemek Dvar and others say that Yitzchok was only 127 and he was not old enough to lose his sight from age, rather there is another reason.

ותכהין עיניו מראות. אין לפרש שהזקנה גרמה זאת שהרי לא הי׳ זקן כ״כ לפי ערך ימי חייו. שהי׳ חי עוד ששים שנה. אלא סיבה הי׳ מן השמים. וכמבואר עוד ברבה הרבה טעמים וגם דקדקו לשון מראות שהוא מיותר אלא נרמז בזה הסיבה לכך וא״כ צריך לפרש ויהי כי זקן יצחק אירע סיבה שכהו עיניו. אבל הזקנה גרמה לו לחשוב מחשבות כי קרבו ימיו שהוא בעצמו לא שיער שהוא סיבה מן השמים. אלא חשב כי סוף ימיו המה

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Shabbos Parshas VaYeshev / Thanksgiving 2021

Kiddush for Beverly’s fifth Yahrzeit coming up on 2 Teves – 

December 6, 2021

Torah on the Sedra

Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 2021

Sholem made Thanksgiving dinner.  Great meal with turkey, chicken, three types of vegetables, stuffing, sweet potatoes, and rice.   Dessert was pumpkin pie.  

Friday, November 26, 2021

Cold day.  An hour before Shabbos I went walking to get my 10,000 steps in.  Listened to Rabbi Efrim Goldberg’s Shiur on the Sedra.  It was vintage Rabbi Goldberg where he weaved together different Rishonim.  He said over a beautiful Rabbi Yosef Ber Soloveichik on the Pasuk 37:18 – וַיִּרְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מֵרָחֹ֑ק – and they saw him from afar, last Torah thought on this post.  

Friday Night Shabbos – November 27, 2021:

My grandchildren, Aliza and Nechama, stayed over for Shabbos.  My daughter and son-in-law were in the hospital with my grandson.  He had trouble breathing.  Boruch Hashem everything is fine and on Sunday they came home from the hospital. 

 Every Friday night I overeat and fall asleep right after the meal.  Tonight was no different and I was asleep by 6:00 PM.  I awoke at 11:45 PM and stayed up for three hours learning the Sedra and preparing for my Shiur.  

Shabbos Morning:

At 8:45 AM left to go to Chabad of East Lakeview, a six mile walk.  Thought about the Shiur I would give and the time flew by.  Arrived in Shul at 10:45 AM, in the middle of Leining.  I leined the Haftorah in Amos which starts with the following Pasuk from Amos 2:6:

כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־מִכְרָ֤ם בַּכֶּ֙סֶף֙ צַדִּ֔יק וְאֶבְי֖וֹן בַּֽעֲב֥וּר נַעֲלָֽיִם׃

“For (the) three sins (I could forgive) Israel, but for four I will not forgive, because they sold justice of an innocent man for silver and cheated the poor for a pair of shoes.” 

Redak on this Pasuk:

רד”ק על עמוס ב׳:ו׳:א׳

אף על פי שעברו על שלשה עברות חמורות, והם עכו”ם, גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים, לא נחתם גזר דינם לפני להחריב ארצם ולהגלותם ע”י מלך אשור, אלא על החמס, והוא הרביעי, ועליו הענישם על כל מה שעשו. וכן בדור המבול: אף על פי שהיו בידם כמה עברות, לא הענישם אלא על החמס, שנאמר (בראשית ו’ י”ג) “כי מלאה הארץ חמס מפניהם”, וכל שכן כשהחמס בא ע”י השופטים, שהיה להם להעמיד הצדק והם ע”י השוחד מטים הדין… פירוש “לא אשיבנו” – לא אשיבנו אל סליחתי שסלחתי לו שלש פעמים והייתי משיב אותו בכל פעם אל סליחתי אם לא היה שב אל פשעו, אבל אחר ששב עוד אל פשעו אענישנו על כולם.

The brothers purchasing shoes in Medresh:

ילקוט שמעוני על התורה קמ״ב:א׳

… (בראשית ל”ז כ”ז) “וימכרו את יוסף לישמעאלים בעשרים כסף” – כל אחד ואחד מהם נטל שני כספים לקנות מנעלים לרגליהם, שנאמר: “על מכרם בכסף צדיק ואביון בעבור נעלים”.

מדרש עשרה הרוגי מלכות (אייזנשטט, אוצר המדרשים):   פעם אחת היה יושב הקיסר ועוסק בתורה ומצא כתוב (שמות כ”א) “וגונב איש ומכרו ונמצא בידו מות יומת” – והלך וטח הבית בנעלים ודבקם בכתלים, ושלח אחר ר’ שמעון בן גמליאל וחבריו ואמר להם: אם כן אתם חייבים מיתה, קבלו על עצמכם דין שמים. אמרו לו: למה? אמר להם: בשביל אחי יוסף שמכרו את יוסף, דכתיב “וימכרו את יוסף בעשרים כסף” וכתיב “על מכרם בכסף צדיק ואביון בעבור נעלים”, ולכן טח אותו רשע את הבית במנעלים, כדי שיכירו באיזה דבר מכרו את יוסף, “בעבור נעלים” – בדמי נעלים.

The Targum Yonason Ben Uziel also brings up the purchase of shoes.   “And the Midianite men, masters of business, passed by; and they drew and brought up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Arabians for twenty mahin of silver; “which were used to purchase sandals”. And they brought Joseph to Mizraim.”

The Gutnick Chumash says “This Haftorah alludes to the sale of Yosef who was sold for silver by his brothers.  The Haftorah is a harsh rebuke by the Prophet Amos for the sins of the Jewish people during the reign of King Yarovam II (8th century BCE).”

Is the linkage of this Pasuk in Amos only superficial or is it on a deeper level.  Is it  an indictment of the ten brothers who sold Yosef because they sold Yosef without justice?  I believe that the answer is superficial linkage.  The reason the Haftorahs were instituted was at a time when the authorities forbade Jews to read the Torah.  Chazel said we will read Nach in that talks about the subject of the Sedra or something that will have a tie into the Parsha, even on a superficial level.

Where else do shoes play a role? 

The battle of Gettysburg.  The goal of General Robert E. Lee was to attack north and conquer Harrisburg, PA and from there go to other Northern cities.   The   battle plan changed in late June 1863.  Shelby Foote in his book ‘Stars in their Courses, The Gettysburg Campaign’ states; “Heth was quick to take him up on that.  “If there is no objection” he said, “I will take my division tomorrow and go to Gettysburg and get those shoes.”

I sponsored the Kiddush in memory of my Aunt Beverly Sklar, my mother’s younger sister who was born with special needs.  I told the circumstances of Beverley’s birth and life.  My source was my Hesped speech at her funeral.   https://kotzk.com/?s=beverly+sklar .

On Thursday I called Linda Kahn to come to Chabad for Davening and for the Kiddush. She has rarely been out of her house due to covid. She came.  I told her I would get her lean corned beef, her favorite, which the Rabbi made sure we had for the Kiddush.

I gave the Dr. Leonard Kranzler Memorial Shiur.  In attendance were Linda Kahn, Peggy and Sid Kaz, Herb Eiseman,  Ray Miller, Tamar Genin, Eli Morgenstern, and Xi.  Paul was in Texas for Shabbos.

Shiur was over at 3:05 PM and walked the six miles back home.

First thought – Verse 37:1 – וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב יַעֲקֹ֔ב בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מְגוּרֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו בְּאֶ֖רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן׃

Yakov arrived at his father’s house when he was 99 years old and Yosef was 8 years old.  Yaakov was 108 years old when the sale of Yosef occurred.  This means that Yakov was 11 years by his father in peace and harmony.  However, during those 11 years trouble was brewing below the surface.  The famous Medresh that Rashi brings down,  וְעוֹד נִדְרָשׁ בּוֹ וישב, בִּקֵּשׁ יַעֲקֹב לֵישֵׁב בְּשַׁלְוָה, קָפַץ עָלָיו רָגְזוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף – צַדִּיקִים מְבַקְּשִׁים לֵישֵׁב בְּשַׁלְוָה, אָמַר הַקָּבָּ”ה לֹא דַיָּן לַצַּדִּיקִים מַה שֶּׁמְּתֻקָּן לָהֶם לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּבַקְּשִׁים לֵישֵׁב בְּשַׁלְוָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה:

On the surface everything was fine but there was trouble afoot.

Yakov was planning to spend the rest of his life learning, davening, and doing Tzedakah and he did get eleven years, yet Hashem said that you cannot withdraw from reality and live a life of serenity.  The Ohr Hachaim goes a step further saying that Yakov disengaged from being the leader of the family, being actively engaged.  This was a monumental mistake because his not leading caused the rift in the family, whose effect we felt for generations. 

The first Pasuk says   וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב יַעֲקֹ֔ב בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מְגוּרֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו בְּאֶ֖רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן׃ .  Yakov was יֵּ֣שֶׁב which means he found permanence in the land of the sojournings of his father.  Was his father also a יֵּ֣שֶׁב or a sojurner?  Avrohom said to the children of Ches, I am a sojourner and a permanent resident among you. What about Yitzchok?  I do not have an answer for this question.  

I saw this interesting Kotzker who brought down this Medresh. I did not say this Vort at the Shiur.  

The following Medresh say the words  בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מְגוּרֵ֣י means in the land of the converts of his father.  This teaches us that Yitzchak also converted people to monotheism.  

:דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיֵּשֶׁב יַעֲקֹב וגו’, אַבְרָהָם גִּיֵּר גִּיּוּרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ה): וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן זִמְרָא אִם מִתְכַּנְסִין כָּל בָּאֵי הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹאת אֲפִלּוּ יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין, וְאַתְּ אוֹמֵר (בראשית יב, ה): וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיֵּר אוֹתָם אַבְרָהָם, וְלָמָּה אָמַר עָשׂוּ, וְלֹא אָמַר גִּיְּרוּ, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מְקָרֵב אֶת הַגֵּר כְּאִלּוּ בְּרָאוֹ. תֹּאמַר אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר וְשָׂרָה לֹא הָיְתָה מְגַיֶּרֶת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֶת הָאֲנָשִׁים וְשָׂרָה מְגַיֶּרֶת אֶת הַנָּשִׁים, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ מַכְנִיסָן לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וּמַאֲכִילָן וּמַשְׁקָן וּמְקָרְבָן וּמַכְנִיסָן תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. יַעֲקֹב גִּיֵּר גִּיּוּרִים, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לה, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל בֵּיתוֹ וגו’ וַיִּתְּנוּ אֶל יַעֲקֹב וגו’, בְּיִצְחָק לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ, וְהֵיכָן שָׁמַעְנוּ, רַבִּי יִצְחָק וְתָאנֵי לָהּ מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא רַבָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן, כָּאן כְּתִיב: וַיֵּשֶׁב יַעֲקֹב בְּאֶרֶץ מְגוּרֵי אָבִיו, מַאי מְגוּרֵי אָבִיו מִגִּיּוּרֵי אָבִיו.

The Kotzker said that Avrohom’s method of converting people was through action, doing kindness,  Yakov’s was more internal.  Verse 35:2 says  וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וְאֶ֖ל כׇּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ הָסִ֜רוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַנֵּכָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּתֹכְכֶ֔ם וְהִֽטַּהֲר֔וּ וְהַחֲלִ֖יפוּ שִׂמְלֹתֵיכֶֽם.  The אֶ֖ל כׇּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ is referring to converts of Yakov.  Yakov was telling them to look deep inside yourselves and remove the bad influence of idols.  What type were Yitzchok’s?  They were the same as Yakov’s as it says,  בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מְגוּרֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו, meaning that both Yitzchok and Yakov’s converts wee converted the same way.  As I contemplate this Kotzker, what is the Kotzker trying to say?  

Second thought on the Parsha:

Verse 2 –  אֵ֣לֶּה ׀ תֹּלְד֣וֹת יַעֲקֹ֗ב יוֹסֵ֞ף בֶּן־שְׁבַֽע־עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ הָיָ֨ה רֹעֶ֤ה אֶת־אֶחָיו֙ בַּצֹּ֔אן וְה֣וּא נַ֗עַר אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י בִלְהָ֛ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י זִלְפָּ֖ה נְשֵׁ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיָּבֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־דִּבָּתָ֥ם רָעָ֖ה אֶל־אֲבִיהֶֽם׃

How do we understand this Pasuk that described Yosef.  Was Yosef good or bad? There are four descriptors of Yosef:

1 –  הָיָ֨ה רֹעֶ֤ה אֶת־אֶחָיו֙ בַּצֹּ֔אן  – good.  He was willing to pitch in. 

2 –   וְה֣וּא נַ֗עַר – immature – could be parve, but we will put this in the bad category.  They viewed Yosef as an immature youth who wanted to control the world. 

3 –  וְה֣וּא נַ֗עַר אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י בִלְהָ֛ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י זִלְפָּ֖ה – good.  Yosef hung around the sons of the maidservants who

                                                                          were verbally abused by the sons of Leah

4 – וַיָּבֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־דִּבָּתָ֥ם רָעָ֖ה אֶל־אֲבִיהֶֽם – bad

Overall, the Pasuk seems to describe Yosef as bad.

If # 3 is true; why did the four brothers of the maidservants Pasken with the sons of Leah.  They should have stepped up and said, you are wrong, we know Yosef and he would never usurp power,  He is kind and gentle.  In Shiur I answered that although Yosef supported them, when they had a chance to side with the bullies, they abandoned Yosef.  Put another way, they had a chance to be part of the club and this meant turning their backs on their former friend and defender.  This is common among people who are bullied. They so wanted to be part of the cool kids, the power elite, that when offered the opportunity they abandon their former uncool friends. Similar to Israel in the 1950s.  Israel’s foreign policy was to help the African and other poor countries with agricultural expertise.  However, in 1967 when the Arabs demanded loyalty they abandoned Israel and the technology for the people to better themselves and sided with the bullies.

Verse 3 continues and describes Yosef relationship with his father:

                                                                  וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָהַ֤ב אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ מִכׇּל־בָּנָ֔יו כִּֽי־בֶן־זְקֻנִ֥ים ה֖וּא ל֑וֹ וְעָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ כְּתֹ֥נֶת פַּסִּֽים׃    

The brothers saw the bad side of Yosef.  Yosef was their father’s favorite and made Yosef a special coat.  Additionally, Yosef was from Rachel, the love of Yakov and his primary wife.  Their mother was secondary.  This special love, the special coat had to bother them greatly which turned into jealousy and hatred.  It is understandable why Yakov would love  Yosef over all his brothers. Yosef was the son of the love of Yakov’s wife, they looked alike, he saw that Yosef was smarter than all his brothers, and he was born later in life to Yakov.   I would also guess that he saw leadership qualities in Yosef which were borne by the dreams.  To compound everything Yakov makes Yosef a special coat.  

We can understand why the brothers hated Yosef.  It was a hatred that turned into jealousy, very deadly.  

All the components of a combustible fire were set in  motion and are further exacerbated by the two dreams.  The first one he did not tell their father, however, in the second doubled down on bringing hatred to himself by telling their father the dream in front of the brothers.

Verse 37:3 –      וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָהַ֤ב אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ מִכׇּל־בָּנָ֔יו כִּֽי־בֶן־זְקֻנִ֥ים ה֖וּא ל֑וֹ וְעָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ כְּתֹ֥נֶת

                                                                                                                                    פַּסִּֽים

Verse 37:4  וַיִּרְא֣וּ אֶחָ֗יו כִּֽי־אֹת֞וֹ אָהַ֤ב אֲבִיהֶם֙ מִכׇּל־אֶחָ֔יו וַֽיִּשְׂנְא֖וּ אֹת֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א יָכְל֖וּ דַּבְּר֥וֹ לְשָׁלֹֽם

Verse 37:5  וַיַּחֲלֹ֤ם יוֹסֵף֙ חֲל֔וֹם וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְאֶחָ֑יו וַיּוֹסִ֥פוּ ע֖וֹד שְׂנֹ֥א אֹתֽוֹ׃     

Verse 37:6     וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֕א הַחֲל֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָלָֽמְתִּי   

וְ֠הִנֵּ֠ה אֲנַ֜חְנוּ מְאַלְּמִ֤ים אֲלֻמִּים֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֛ה קָ֥מָה אֲלֻמָּתִ֖י וְגַם־נִצָּ֑בָה וְהִנֵּ֤ה תְסֻבֶּ֙ינָה֙ אֲלֻמֹּ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וַתִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖יןָ לַאֲלֻמָּתִֽי׃

וַיֹּ֤אמְרוּ לוֹ֙ אֶחָ֔יו הֲמָלֹ֤ךְ תִּמְלֹךְ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ אִם־מָשׁ֥וֹל תִּמְשֹׁ֖ל בָּ֑נוּ וַיּוֹסִ֤פוּ עוֹד֙ שְׂנֹ֣א אֹת֔וֹ עַל־חֲלֹמֹתָ֖יו וְעַל־דְּבָרָֽיו׃

Verse 37:9  וַיַּחֲלֹ֥ם עוֹד֙ חֲל֣וֹם אַחֵ֔ר וַיְסַפֵּ֥ר אֹת֖וֹ לְאֶחָ֑יו וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֨ה חָלַ֤מְתִּֽי חֲלוֹם֙ ע֔וֹד וְהִנֵּ֧ה הַשֶּׁ֣מֶשׁ וְהַיָּרֵ֗חַ וְאַחַ֤ד עָשָׂר֙ כּֽוֹכָבִ֔ים מִֽשְׁתַּחֲוִ֖ים לִֽי׃

Verse 37:10 – וַיְסַפֵּ֣ר אֶל־אָבִיו֮ וְאֶל־אֶחָיו֒ וַיִּגְעַר־בּ֣וֹ אָבִ֔יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ מָ֛ה הַחֲל֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָלָ֑מְתָּ הֲב֣וֹא נָב֗וֹא אֲנִי֙ וְאִמְּךָ֣ וְאַחֶ֔יךָ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֥ת לְךָ֖ אָֽרְצָה

Yakov realizes that the brothers hated Yosef and he tries to mitigate the hatred by minimizing the dream and saying it is a false dream.  Obviously, this was too little, too late. This verse and Verse 11 say:

וַיְסַפֵּ֣ר אֶל־אָבִיו֮ וְאֶל־אֶחָיו֒ וַיִּגְעַר־בּ֣וֹ אָבִ֔יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ מָ֛ה הַחֲל֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָלָ֑מְתָּ הֲב֣וֹא נָב֗וֹא אֲנִי֙ וְאִמְּךָ֣ וְאַחֶ֔יךָ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֥ת לְךָ֖  אָֽרְצָה׃

Third Thought:    Verse 37:11 וַיְקַנְאוּ־ב֖וֹ אֶחָ֑יו וְאָבִ֖יו שָׁמַ֥ר אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר׃

Beautiful Medrsh says on the words    וְאָבִ֖יו שָׁמַ֥ר אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר – 

וַיְקַנְאוּ בוֹ אֶחָיו וְאָבִיו שָׁמַר (בראשית לז, יא), אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי נָטַל קוּלְמוּס וְכָתַב בְּאֵיזֶה יוֹם וּבְאֵיזֶה שָׁעָה בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וְאָבִיו שָׁמַר אֶת הַדָּבָר, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ אוֹמֶרֶת שְׁמֹר אֶת הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁעֲתִידִין הַדְּבָרִים לִגַּע. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר כָּךְ אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב סָבַר וְרָאָה דְּבָרִים מְמַשְׁמְשִׁין וּבָאִין, אָמַר אִם נִתְבַּקְרָה פִּנְקָסוֹ מַה יָּכוֹל אֲנִי לַעֲשׂוֹת.

Yakov marked down on his notepad the details of the dreams because he fervently believed it would happen and he wanted to record what Yosef said so that he can look into his notebook years later and recall his thoughts and emotions when he heard the dream.  Rabbi Efreim Goldberg said in the name of Rabbi Eliyahu Lopian that we all should  record in a notebook things in our life that are monumental and of consequence so we do not forget what we did and relive the experience.  We will be able to vividly recall our feelings of that time.  Imagine a lifetime of those thoughts and deeds where you can go back and relive those moments.  Especially moments of truth when our life changed directions because of a decision or an action.

As an aside.  All three parties, Yakov, Yosef, and the ten brothers bore responsibility. The ten brothers were the ultimate guilty party, even though they thought they were acting properly, but Yakov and Yosef also contributed to the hatred.  

Continuation of the Narrative:

Everything is primed for a disaster.  The brothers hated and were jealous of Yoseph.  They felt that Yoseph was a Morad B’Malchus.  Yehuda was to be the king in the Jewish nation and Joseph via his dreams said I will be the king and they felt Yosef was trying to influence their father to be his successor and not the ten tribes.  The brothers Paskened that Yoseph deserved death.  We see that after they put Yoseph in the pit, they ate with a clear conscience.  They felt morally correct.

Fourth Thought:  Verse 37:12:

וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ אֶחָ֑יו לִרְע֛וֹת אֶׄתׄ־צֹ֥אן אֲבִיהֶ֖ם בִּשְׁכֶֽם   – There are two dots about the אֶׄתׄ .  Rashi brings down the Medresh saying that the two dots are telling us  that they went to take care of themselves. Bamidbar Rabbah 3:3 escribes what the were doing –  וְדִכְוָתָהּ (בראשית לז, יב): וַיֵּלְכוּ אֶחָיו לִרְעוֹת אֶת, לָמָּה נָקוּד עַל אֶת, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹא הָלְכוּ לִרְעוֹת אֶלָּא לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְהִתְפַּתּוֹת.  The Medresh is very critical of the tribes. When I first saw the word  לְהִתְפַּתּוֹת I thought it meant girls, however the  Medresh does not say girls.   This Medresh is telling us that they went to Shechem to think about how to carry out  the Pesak that Yosef deserves death and should be killed.  They had to talk themselves into carrying out this terrible Pesak.  They had to seduce themselves and talk themselves into carrying out the death sentence.  לְהִתְפַּתּוֹת is a reflexive word, meaning you let yourself be seduced.  It is one thing to say that Yosef deserves death, but to actually carry it out is difficult.  They had to build up the courage to actually carry out the death sentence.  I spoke this over with Rabbi Avrohom Shimon Moller and he did not hesitate that it means to seduce themselves, talk themselves into.

Fascinating.  It seems from their viewpoint, they were right. They sat down for a meal when they had Yoseph in the pit to eat with a clear conscience. Later on when they had the trouble in Egypt, they did not say they made a mistake, rather they said we should have heard the pleading of Joseph.  

Rabbi Efreim Goldberg asked why were they punished if they paskened that Yosef should die and God participated in their decision?  Their decision had a lasting negative impact on the Jewish people from the split in the tribes to the ten martyrs, so we see that they were wrong.  Rabbi Goldberg answered because they were jealous of Yosef and hated  him.  They did not have clarity when they Paskened.   Therefore they had no right to Pasken and were held accountable.  I am willing to bet that during the 22 years that Yoseph was gone some it not all of them felt uneasiness about their Pasak.  I have to assume that the four sons of the maidservants regretted the Pasak.   God’s participation is cited in Rashi Verse 37 that the brothers cursed anyone who would reveal what happened and included God with this curse.  

חיה רעה אכלתהו. נִצְנְצָה בוֹ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, סוֹפוֹ שֶׁתִּתְגָּרֶה בוֹ אֵשֶׁת פּוֹטִיפַר. וְלָמָּה לֹא גִלָּה לוֹ הַקָּבָּ”ה? לְפִי שֶׁהֶחֱרִימוּ וְקִלְּלוּ אֶת כָּל מִי שֶׁיְּגַלֶּה, וְשִׁתְּפוּ לְהַקָּבָּ”ה עִמָּהֶם (תנחומא), אֲבָל יִצְחָק הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא חַי, אָמַר הֵיאַךְ אֲגַלֶּה וְהַקָּבָּ”ה אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְגַלּוֹת לוֹ:

The Sefsei Chachomin adds:

לפי שהחרימו וקללו את כל מי שיגלה ושתפו להקב”ה עמהם כו’. בודאי לא היה מוכרח לכך אלא מעצמו היה מסכים עמהם מפני כמה דברים חדא כדי שיתקיים כי גר יהיה זרעך (לעיל טו יג) דאי היה יודע יעקב שהורד למצרים היה פודה את יוסף בכל ממון שבעולם. ועוד דאי היה יודע יעקב היה מקלל אותם למחות את שמם ואז יכלה זרעו של ישראל והקב”ה רצה שיפרו וירבו. ולכך פירש בסמוך והקב”ה אינו רוצה לגלות לו משמע שלא היה מוכרח לכך ואם רצה היה מגלה אלא שהקב”ה הסכים עמהם כדי שיתקיים הגזירה של ועבדום וענו אותם. ועוד י”ל כדפירש רש”י בסמוך ימים רבים כ”ב שנה וכו’. וקשה מאי נ”מ אם כ”ב שנה או יותר הוא אלא ודאי דקשה לרש”י למה לא הגיד לו הקב”ה ליעקב למה היה מצערו כ”ב שנה אלא משום זה היה עושה כנגד כ”ב שנים שלא קיים כיבוד אב ואם שאם הגיד לו הקב”ה היה יעקב עושה תשובה והיה מבטל מה שנגזר עליו שיהיה בצער כ”ב שנה והקב”ה רצה לשלם לו על שביטל כיבוד אב ואם ולכן הסכים עמהם בחרם כדי שלא יהיו רשאין לגלות. דחרם הוא כמו שבועה וכשהקב”ה נשבע אין התשובה מבטלת כדפירש”י בפרשת חקת (במדבר כ יב) לכן לא תביאו בשבועה וכו’ נשבע בקפיצה כדי שלא ירבה בתפלה על כך ה”נ החרם היא כמו שבועה לכך הסכים עמהם:

  Fifth Thought:   Verses 13 and 14:

Continuing the Narrative:

                                                     וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶל־יוֹסֵ֗ף הֲל֤וֹא אַחֶ֙יךָ֙ רֹעִ֣ים בִּשְׁכֶ֔ם לְכָ֖ה וְאֶשְׁלָחֲךָ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ הִנֵּֽנִי׃

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ לֶךְ־נָ֨א רְאֵ֜ה אֶת־שְׁל֤וֹם אַחֶ֙יךָ֙ וְאֶת־שְׁל֣וֹם הַצֹּ֔אן וַהֲשִׁבֵ֖נִי דָּבָ֑ר וַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֙הוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣מֶק חֶבְר֔וֹן וַיָּבֹ֖א שְׁכֶֽמָה׃

Yakov tells Yosef.  Please go and see what is happening with the brothers and the flock.  Despite Yakov knowing of the hatred, he asked Yosef to go.  Yosef responded  הִנֵּֽנִי.  Yosef knew that he was hated and he should have said to his father, Dad, I do not think this is a good idea, my brothers hate me and may harm me.  Additionally, why would Yakov have to worry about his ten 10 sons.  They were a strong group of adult men.  We also see that Ruvein went back to take care of his father so why did he have to send Yosef.

The answer is that this all is the start of the fulfilment of the destiny foretold at the Akediah of the enslavement in a strange land. The entire idea of Yakov feeling the need to send his son for a status report had to be placed in Yakov’s head by God, Yakov thinking I need a report.   

Yakov sending Yosef,  you can answer simply that he did not understand how deeply the brothers hated Yosef, however, how do you understand Yosef’s reaction?  The answer that is given is that he had so much honor and respect  for his father, he would not question his father in any way.  

The new Lubavitch Chumash explains Yakov’s and Yosef’s considerations differently.  Yakov knew that the brothers hated Yosef and did not want to send, however, he sensed destiny and felt he had to send.  Similarly, Yosef also felt that destiny will be played out.   Both Yakov and Yosef had an intuition that something big will happen, destiny is about to happen but this is only a feeling.   There is no  question that had Yakov known the end result he would not have sent Yosef. 

Peggy Kaz said over a nice Pshat.  Where else does the Torah say הִנֵּֽנִי?  When  Avorhom responded to God    הִנֵּֽנִי by the Akeidah and a second time in Genesis Verse 31:11 – וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלַ֜י מַלְאַ֧ךְ הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים בַּחֲל֖וֹם יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וָאֹמַ֖ר הִנֵּֽנִי׃.

Peggy said that perhaps the word   הִנֵּֽנִי is not that just a response, I am here to do what you are asking me to do,   Perhaps it is also a sense that I am here to do what you want because I sense destiny. It is a word that infers destiny.  

We see from Rashi on Verse 37:14 that destiny is playing its hand.

מעמק חברון. וַהֲלֹא חֶבְרוֹן בָּהָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּעֲלוּ בַנֶּגֶב וַיָּבֹא עַד חֶבְרוֹן (במדבר י”ג), אֶלָּא מֵעֵצָה עֲמֻקָּה שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק הַקָּבוּר בְּחֶבְרוֹן, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר לְאַבְרָהָם בֵּין הַבְּתָרִים כִּי גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ (בראשית ט״ו:י״ג):

Sixth Thought

I said years ago that Yakov for twenty two years wondered why he sent his son.  He told himself, I knew that there were reasons not to send, why oh why did I send him? He replayed the scene daily in his mind. I found the following Medresh that says this very thing.     רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא הַדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ הָיָה יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ נִזְכָּר וּמֵעָיו מִתְחַתְּכִין, יוֹדֵעַ הָיִיתָ שֶׁאַחֶיךָ שׂוֹנְאִים אוֹתְךָ וְהָיִיתָ אוֹמֵר לִי הִנֵּנִי.

    Rabbi Chama bar Chanina: Yaakov remembered these words and his internal organs would

    feel like     they were being chopped up: you knew that your brothers hated you, and still 

    you said to me ‘here I am.’

Seventh Thought:

Yosef goes and has a dialogue with someone the Torah calls an “Ish” who Rashi says is a good angel, Gavriel.   Rabbi Yosef Ber Soloveichik calls Gavriel, the angel of destiny.  Destiny is being played out at this time and Gavriel is manipulating events to make sure it happens.  Rashi in Verse 37:14 says that destiny is being played out to start the process of fulfilling God’s words at the Akediah that the Jews will be in a strange land for 400 years.

Rabbi Goldberg brought down a beautiful Rabbi Yosef Ber Soloveichik.

The angel Gavriel asks Yosef what are you seeking.  Yosef answers  וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֶת־אַחַ֖י אָנֹכִ֣י מְבַקֵּ֑שׁ.  The Rov says the Pshat is that I am looking for brotherhood, peace and harmony.  The angel responds that brotherhood will not happen, and the angel hinted to Yosef, in fact they are going to Dosan to Pasken that you should be put to death and they are planning to kill you.   וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָאִישׁ֙ נָסְע֣וּ מִזֶּ֔ה כִּ֤י שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ אֹֽמְרִ֔ים נֵלְכָ֖ה דֹּתָ֑יְנָה וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ יוֹסֵף֙ אַחַ֣ר אֶחָ֔יו וַיִּמְצָאֵ֖ם בְּדֹתָֽן׃ 

Then it says וַיִּרְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מֵרָחֹ֑ק וּבְטֶ֙רֶם֙ יִקְרַ֣ב אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽתְנַכְּל֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ לַהֲמִיתֽוֹ׃  The Rov tranlslates וַיִּרְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מֵרָחֹ֑ק that they saw Yosef as an outsider, a  stranger.  Yosef wanted brotherhood but they would not reciprocate and never would.    After Yakov dies the brothers go over to Yosef and tell him that their father instructed them to tell Yosef not to take revenge against them.  Yosef is devastated.  He knew that they were lying because he never revealed to his father the true story of himself going to Egypt.  Despite years of all of them getting along, it was illusionary, they only showed brotherhood because of Yakov.  They never viewed him as part of the family.

You can ask, isn’t this rich? Yosef caused the rift and now he wants to have brotherhood.  You have to answer that Yosef never wanted to cause jealousy.  He never intended to hurt his brothers.  He wanted them to grow as humans.  Rabbi Efreim Golberg asked when Yosef told over the dreams what did he expect?  Rabbi Goldberg answered perhaps Yosef is saying strive for greatness.  Look at me, the young, immature  brother will accomplish greatness.  The message of the dream is not that you will bow down to me, but that I will also become a great figure and you, my older brothers, can also achieve greatness. I have had this younger brother syndrome to my two older brothers, Peach and Arela.

Week of October 31 – November 6, 2021

25 Cheshvon – 2 Kislav 5782

Shabbos Parshas Toldos – November 6, 2021

This is the first full week of living in our new house at 2936 W. Glenlake.   Magnificent.

Recalling  Rabbi Aaron Soloveichik, TZL

This Shabbos was Avrumi Bernstein’s Au Ruf in Sidney’s basement Minyan.  The wedding is in Lakewood,

Purchased of A Letter in the Scroll by Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, TZL

Purchased Rabbi David Fohrman’s Sefer on Bereshis

Rabbi Aaron Soloveichik

Recap of week:

This was the first full week of living in my new home at 2936 W. Glenlake.  I have been dreaming of moving into this home since I purchased it in 2012.  The house is beyond my expectations.  Rabbi Revach’s Shiurim continue to be amazing and I continue to fight with my Chavrusah.  Worked hard to buy things and organize the new home.  We made our final decision on kitchen cabinets on Wednesday and ordered them.  They will be completed in late January 2022.  We still have to pick out the countertops.  Originally we picked out a Corian tile, however I want to go with Ceaserstone, an Israeli company.  I want to picture the sweeping landscape of Israel and recall the theme song of the movie Exodus,   https://youtu.be/z_TfM0SwdJE .  The theme song with words –    https://youtu.be/QEYmomUuveU .    We also have to decide whether the countertops will have a one foot overhang for bar stools or a table. Friday I went to Rosenblums and purchased Rabbi Jonathan Sacks’ Sefer, A Letter in the Scroll and Rabbi David Fohrman’s Genesis, A Parsha Companion.  On Shabbos was the Auf Ruv of Avrumi Bernstein at our Shul in Sidney Glenner’s basement.  I know the Chassen’s father, Matt Bernstein, an attorney,  and finally met his mother, a Japanese convert.

Vort #1:

On Shabbos Parshas Toldos 1973 at his Shalosh Seudas Drasha, Reb Aaaron Soloveichik explained why Yitzchok wanted to give the Brachos to Eisav and not Yakov.  As I recall Reb Aaron said that Yitzchok felt that to survive, Klal Yisroel had to be strong and tough like Eisav and as far as Torah, he will teach Eisuv Torah.  This Hashgacha Pratis of the events as they unfolded was to show Yitzchok that Yaakov also had strength to become the foundation of the nation of Israel. 

Reb Aaron mentioned Onkelys in Todos Verse 27:13.   וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ אִמּ֔וֹ עָלַ֥י קִלְלָתְךָ֖ בְּנִ֑י אַ֛ךְ שְׁמַ֥ע בְּקֹלִ֖י וְלֵ֥ךְ קַֽח־לִֽי׃

Onkeylis – וַאֲמֶרֶת לֵיהּ אִמֵּיהּ עֲלַי אִתְאַמַּר בִּנְבוּאָה דְּלָא יֵיתוּן לְוָטַיָּא עֲלָךְ בְּרִי בְּרַם קַבֵּל מִנִּי וְאִזֵּיל סַב לִי – tranlsated as “And his mother said to him, Unto me it hath been said in prophecy, that there shall be no curses upon thee, my son; only obey me, and go, and take for me.”   The way Reb Aaron interpreted it, or how I remember Reb Aaron explaining Onkolus that she told her son that I was told via prophecy that you are to go in and take the Brochos from Eisav.  Meaning that at this very moment Rivka had this prophecy.  I always wondered, how did Onkelys know that Rivka heard a prophecy to pull this deception.  On Friday, I purchased the Sefer written by Rabbi David Fohrman on Bershis from Rosenblum’s.  Reading his Torah on Toldos, it clicked.  The prophecy Onkelys mentioned in all likelihood is the prophecy she heard from Shem when she was pregnant that the elder son will serve the younger son.  Most commentators translate this to mean that the older son being Eisav will serve the younger son Yaakov.  Therefore she reasoned Yaakov was destined to receive the first born blessing from Yitzhok and seemingly she felt that the only way to do this is through deception.  Rabbi Fohrman has a different Mehalech and says that she did not plan to deceive Yitzchok. Yaakov was to go in and tell his father that I am Yakov and that the Borchos belong to me.  The plan went awry and Yakov ended up deceiving his father.

Vort 2:

I was listening to Rabbi Levertov’s Parsha class from Sante Fe, NM, where he is the Shliach.   There was one listener who challenged Rabbi Levertov a number of times and was saying ideas that smacked of bible criticism and interpreting the Avos in a bad light.  She sounded intelligent and was hard to refute.  Of course she went against Rashi and other Reshoman, but just reading the Chumash without Rashi she sounded intelligent.  At one point Rabbi Levertov said that we cannot ignore 3,000 years of Mesorah.  Her last complaint was that the Avos had bad communication skills because Rivka did not tell her husband about her prophecy.  Through siatta dismaya, I remembered an old Vort that I said many years ago as to why she didn’t tell her husband the bad news that one son will turn out evil.  Rivka upon hearIng this devastating news thought to herself, I will not let this happen.  I will bring him up in a spiritual atmosphere, teach him, and train him to be a Tzaddik, a righteous man.  We do know that Eisev had the potential to be a Tzaddik.  Some say that the original divine plan was for Eisuv to be the financial support for Yaakov and Klal Yisroel, with Yaakov being the spiritual heart.  A Yissachar-Zevulun relationship.   She did not tell her husband because she did not want her husband to prejudge Eisav.  She wanted Yitzchok  to treat him and educate him just like Yaakov.  This is the nature vs. nurture argument.  I think that this explanation is so obvious.

Vort #3:

 The Torah in Chapter 26 discusses Yitzchok’s stay in Gerar.  Yitzchok becomes wealthy and the Pelishtim become jealous of Yitzchok.   

Bereshis Verse 26:14 describes Yitzchok’s wealth. 

וַֽיְהִי־ל֤וֹ מִקְנֵה־צֹאן֙ וּמִקְנֵ֣ה בָקָ֔ר וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה וַיְקַנְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃

and he acquired flocks and herds, וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה, so that the Philistines envied him.

When I read this Passuk, I thought that the translation of   וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה  would be that Yitzchok had many slaves.   I was surprised that Rashi said that וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה  means “much work.   Looking through the Reshonim, there are three different translations וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה

1 – much enterprise – Rashi

2 – slaves/servants – Ibn Ezra and the Ramban

3 – farmland / farm work to be done – Sferno, Rashbam, Raak

What does Rashi mean when he says “much enterprise”.  The world back in the times of the Avos and for thousands of years were agricultural societies and raising farm animals.  There was no industry creating jobs that we have since the industrial revolutions starting in 1840.

Rashi is telling us an aspect of Yitzchok’s responsibility to the world and fellow man.  Yitzchok built businesses to employ people, to give them jobs, and a living.  Yitzchok is generally considered a man of Gevurah.  Someone who closed himself from within and did not engage the world.  However, the Torah tells us that despite his lack of engagement with the world, he was a tremendous Ba’al Chesed.  The Torah’s tells us the same thing with the wells.  After being kicked out from Gerar, he goes back to dig wells.  Why would Yitzchok do this when he was kicked out from Gerar and as Rashi says that he went to the valley of Gerar, far from the city.   Verse16:17 and 18 say –  וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ מִשָּׁ֖ם יִצְחָ֑ק וַיִּ֥חַן בְּנַֽחַל־גְּרָ֖ר וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב שָֽׁם׃ 

וַיָּ֨שׇׁב יִצְחָ֜ק וַיַּחְפֹּ֣ר ׀ אֶת־בְּאֵרֹ֣ת הַמַּ֗יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר חָֽפְרוּ֙ בִּימֵי֙ אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֔יו וַיְסַתְּמ֣וּם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אַחֲרֵ֖י מ֣וֹת אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֤א לָהֶן֙ שֵׁמ֔וֹת כַּשֵּׁמֹ֕ת אֲשֶׁר־קָרָ֥א לָהֶ֖ן אָבִֽיו׃

The reason is that Yitzchok knew that water means life and water is a major resource to sustain society.  He went back to Gerar to dig wells to give the people sources of water.    All major cities in the US are built next to water sources.  This Is in contrast to the leaders who closed Avrohom’s wells because of jealousy.  They deprived their citizens of an important resource and caused them hardships and told the people a nonsensical reason why they closed the wells.  While on the surface it seems reasonable, that an invading army may come and will have water to fight against us, the reality is that when invading armies come to Gerar, they can close up the wells at that time.  This is what politicians do.  They do not care if they hurt their own people and only care about their power.  

Rashi in explaining  וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה as “much enterprise” based on what I wrote is saying that Yitzchok observe the highest level of chairy, of giving people jobs, as the Rambam writes in Hilchos Matnas Aniem – the laws of giving charity –   שְׁמוֹנֶה מַעֲלוֹת יֵשׁ בַּצְּדָקָה זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ. מַעֲלָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁאֵין לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנָּה זֶה הַמַּחֲזִיק בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמָּךְ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ מַתָּנָה אוֹ הַלְוָאָה אוֹ עוֹשֶׂה עִמּוֹ שֻׁתָּפוּת אוֹ מַמְצִיא לוֹ מְלָאכָה כְּדֵי לְחַזֵּק אֶת יָדוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת לִשְׁאל. וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא כה לה) “וְהֶחֱזַקְתָּ בּוֹ גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב וָחַי עִמָּךְ” כְּלוֹמַר הַחֲזֵק בּוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִפּל וְיִצְטָרֵךְ:  

There are eight levels of tzedakah, each one greater than the other. The greatest level,

higher than all the rest, is to fortify a fellow Jew and give him a gift, a loan, form with him a partnership, or find work for him, until he is strong enough so that he does not need to ask others [for sustenance]. Of this it is said, (Lev. 25:35) [If your kinsman, being in straits,

comes under your authority,] and you hold him as though a resident alien, let him live

by your side. That is as if to say, “Hold him up,” so that he will not fall and be in need.

The following is a list of Reshonim and how they translate וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה.

First Translation:

1 – Rashi’s words –   ועבדה רבה. פְּעֻלָּה רַבָּה בִּלְשׁוֹן לע”ז אוברי”נא, עֲבוֹדָה מַשְׁמָע עֲבוֹדָה אַחַת; עֲבֻדָּה מַשְׁמָע פְּעֻלָּה רַבָּה: 

Artscroll translation of Rashi – “This means “much work”. “The word  עֲבוֹדָה  denotes one task but the word עֲבֻדָּה  denotes many varieties of work.”

Second Translation:

2 – Ibn Ezra – ועבדה. עבדים ושפחות שיעבדוהו והוא תואר השם או שם כמו סגולה: 

3 -Ramban:   ויהי לו מקנה צאן ומקנה בקר ועבודה רבה – אתונות וגמלים וחמורים ועבדים ושפחות

Third Translation:

4 – Sforno:   ועבודה רבה, soil ready to be worked

5 – Rashbam:       ועבודה רבה, work in the field and vineyards. The expression עבודה, unless defined differently, additionally, always refers to labour in the field.

6 – Radak:      ועבודה רבה, he also engaged extensively in agriculture. Compare Proverbs 12,11, עובד אדמתו, “tilling his own land.” Compare also Genesis 4,11 כי תעבוד את האדמה, “when you till the soil.”                                                     

The word עֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה  as defined by the Reshomin and how the various Chumasim translate these words.

Rashi – Much enterprise:

Artscroll – much enterprise

            Gutnick Chumash – much enterprise

            Mesoras Harav – much production

Ibn Ezra – slaves  –  Sefaria – large household

Ramban                   JPS – great household

                                Soncino – great household*

* See Soncino commentary

Sferno – Farmland/farmland to be worked – Rabbi Samson Rephael Hirsh chumash – much farmland 

Rashbam

Redak

Rabbi Roberts said that this is the meaning of the Rambam in Hilchos  Melachim 9, Halacha 1 

that says:     וְכֵן הָיָה הַדָּבָר בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם עַד אַבְרָהָם. בָּא אַבְרָהָם וְנִצְטַוָּה יֶתֶר עַל אֵלּוּ בְּמִילָה. וְהוּא הִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית. וַיִּצְחָק הִפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר וְהוֹסִיף תְּפִלָּה אַחֶרֶת לִפְנוֹת הַיּוֹם. וְיַעֲקֹב הוֹסִיף גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה וְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית. וּבְמִצְרַיִם נִצְטַוָּה עַמְרָם בְּמִצְוֹת יְתֵרוֹת. עַד שֶׁבָּא משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ וְנִשְׁלְמָה תּוֹרָה עַל יָדוֹ.

Yitzchok established the laws of tithing.  The Ravad argues on the Rambam and says it was Avrohom who established Maaser.   According to the Rambam one would not expect that Yitzchok established tithing because Yitzchok’s character trait is Geverah and not Chesed.  It was Avrohom whose characteristic was charity and chesed.  Yet, the Rambam ascribes tithing to Yitzchok.  The reason is as stated above.  Yitzchok worked to the benefit of society, providing water resources and an economy providing jobs.  He also felt that people should have to give away 1/10 of their property to help other people, to help society.

Added Insight:

Each of the Avos had their defining trait; Avraham’s was chesed, Yitzchak’s was gevurah (to be explained), and Ya’akov’s was emes/tiferes. The Immahos also had their defining traits, and these were the traits which complemented their husbands; Sarah’s was gevurah, Rivkah’s was chesed, and Rachel and Leah’s matched Ya’akov. At this point we shall explain what the trait of gevurah is and why it complements the trait of chesed. Chesed as a trait [this is distinct from the mitzvah of gemillus chesed] means the attribute of unlimited giving. The only problem that this can have is that giving without limits can be harmful. As every parent knows, giving a sweet to their children is nice, but too many sweets will cause tooth decay. Similarly, the Torah labels certain forbidden incestuous relationships as being ‘a chesed’[3] for this is when one’s desire for love and giving has spilled over and has not been contained or limited appropriately. This is where the trait of gevurah comes in. Gevurah limit’s the outflow of the trait of chesed to give it solid boundaries and essentially bring it into positive fruition – it is the ‘strict/harsh’ setting of limits.

Shabbos Parshas Shemini – April 10, 2021 – 29Nisan 5781

 

Tomorrow is Zedi Sklar’s mother Yahrzeit – see pictures at the end of this post.

I saw this beautiful Kotzker.

VaYikra 11:33

וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֥ל מֵהֶ֖ם אֶל־תּוֹכ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּתוֹכ֛וֹ יִטְמָ֖א וְאֹת֥וֹ תִשְׁבֹּֽרוּ׃  

Rashi –             (אל תוכו. אֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִטַּמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ (חולין כ”ד

Rashi –    ואותו תשברו. לִמֵּד שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טָהֳרָה בַּמִּקְוֶה:

Kotzker Torah on this Passuk:

הטעם שאין כלי  חרש מטמא אלא מתוכו וגם כן אין לו טהרה בּמקוה, משׁום שכלי חרס אין לו שׁום חשיבות בּעצם, כי במה נחשב הוא  חרש מחרשי האדמה,  ורק עיקר חשיבות אצלו  שיש לו תוך ויכולין להכנס בו איזה דבר לפיכך אינה מטמאה  מגבּה אלא מתוכו  שעיקרו  הוא התוך,  וכן הוא האדם עפר מן אדמה ואין לו חשׁיבות אלא אם כן ישׁ בּתוכו ממש.

The Kotzker says that we can give a reason for this anomaly by Tumah  – a  כְּלִי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ only becomes Tamah from its inside and there is purification in a Mikvah because  a  כְּלִי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ has no  חשׁיבית בּעצם – intrinsic value, because it is made out of plain dirt (clay). All of its חשׁיבית is only because it has an inside – תוך and can hold items.  Therefore an earthenware vessel does not become Tamah from its outside, only from its inside because the essence of an earthenware utensil is the inside.  So it is true by man who is created from the dust of the earth –  וַיִּיצֶר֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֗ם עָפָר֙ מִן־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה וַיִּפַּ֥ח בְּאַפָּ֖יו נִשְׁמַ֣ת חַיִּ֑ים וַֽיְהִ֥י הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְנֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּֽה׃  (Bereshisis 2:7), man’s only value is if he has a  תוך.  

What does the Kotzker mean?   I believe that the Kotzker Is speaking about the human condition.  Man’s value only comes about when he puts self worth, positive values, and essence into his being, into his psyche.  Man has to feel in his core that I am something. Man does have life force from Hashem, however, that is not enough.  

This is expressed in a story about Reb Leible Eiger. See below for the complete Hebrew text.   Reb Leible Eiger travels to Kotzk against the wishes of his grandfather, Reb Akiva Eiger, and father, Reb Shlomo Eiger.  Reb Shlomo Eiger sends a messenger to Kotzk to see what is going on in Kotzk.  The messenger sees Reb Leibele Eiger sitting at a meal with the students and someone runs in and says  Reb Hersh Ber has arrived. They all ran to greet Reb Hersh Ber.  The messinger follows expecting to see a Talmud Chocom or a distinguished person.  He sees a man dressed as a farmer without the appearance of a distinguished person.  When the messenger asks, why did everyone run to greet Reb Hersh Ber, he is told that Reb Hersh Ber is an עניו – a humble person

has nothing.  On this Reb Chenich Henoch from  Alekander responds, I say that even though he has nothing, and yet he is an  עניו – this is his great מדריגה.    Explanation – someone who is down because he has nothing is depressed.  He is not an  עניו.   I believe what Reb Henoch Chenoch was saying is that Reb Hersh Ber despite having nothing significant in this world, still embraced life, he was happy, and my guess is that his joy of life was infectious.  His being an עניו was that he embraced God, accepted his lot in life, and spread joy to everyone.   Kotzk is synonymous with learning and great Torah scholarship.  Yet Reb Hersh Ber was embraced even though he was unlearned.   Reb Hersh Ber had a strong  תוך .

I showed this to Yonatan Glenner and he answered the way most people would say that he needs to put into himself holiness, Torah, and dedication to Hashem.  You can also add  that man has the spirit of God within him as it says  וַיִּפַּ֥ח בְּאַפָּ֖יו נִשְׁמַ֣ת חַיִּ֑ים.   I do not think this is what the Kotzker means.     Man is created from lowly earth, a product that has zero value.   Man must put value into his life. Man must create a חשיבות into the vessel that was created by God from earth.  

My wife had an uncle who had a tough life.   He needed medication. He was divorced.  In the family business, he was given no responsibility and was ignored.  He lived a life of solitude.  How did he create a  תוך? His son in law spoke at the first year Yahrzeit Kiddush that,”my father-in-law was an honored person, why? because his daughter honored him.”  This said it all, by his daughter getting involved in her father’s life towards the end and showing him honor made her father a man of respect.  

In 1998 I was unhappy at work and interviewed at another bank.  I was offered a job.  I decided not to take the job because I was told that I would not have control over my position.   The person offering me the job had wealth.  About 15 years later lost everything.   I also had a boss who also lost close to $20 million.  How do you live with yourself?  My boss does not have a family and has no one. He has to somehow create a   תוך.     The person offering me the job in 1998 has a son in law who is a big Talmud Chachum and has a beautiful family.  This person through his family has a תוך , something he can be proud of, a sense of accomplishment and wake up every morning with a zest for life.  I do not know if he focuses on his bad decision making or if he realizes that he had to lose the money to have a great family.

It took me many years to find my personal  תוך.        

Pictures of Zedi’s mother, Chana Henya Sklar: